Aĉĉented letters without download

The mystery of how to easily produce Esperanto's accented letters in Microsoft Word, without any download, is unveiled. Shortcut Keys set-up: First of all, would-be users have the easy task of setting up "keystroke shortcuts", as follows:-
1. Open Microsoft ® Word © 2007, 2000, or 97.
2. Move the mouse pointer to the Menu Bar near the top. Click "Insert", then "Symbol", then click "Symbols" (or "More Symbols").
3. Ensure that the tab at the front is correct.
4. Ensure that the "Font" panel shows "(normal text)". (Word 97 users, take particular note.)
5. On the bottom line (without scrolling) of letters, fourth from the left, click the capital circumflexed Ĉ. (In Word 97, it might be second from the left.  In Word 2007, use the arrow keys or the mouse cursor to go to the 13th line to find Ĉ.)
6. Click "Shortcut Key". Normally the "Save changes in" should read "Normal.dot".
7. Alt + Shift + C (this means, hold down [Alt] and [Shift] while you press C). You will see the keystroke combination you just made in a panel named "Press new shortcut key".
8. Click "Assign". This will assign that keystroke shortcut to capital C circumflex, that is, Ĉ.
9. Click "Close".
(Assign next character)
10. Find the small circumflexed ĉ to the right of the Ĉ, and click ĉ.
11. Click "Shortcut Key".
12. [Alt] + c.  Click "Assign".  Click "Close".
And so on, right through to Ŭ and ŭ -- with breves ( ˘ ), not the circumflexes ( ^ ) like the rest.
   When typing a word such as "aĉeti," all you have to do is to hold down [Alt] and type "c" to get the ĉ. If a capital Ĉ is required, hold down the [Alt] plus [Shift] keys before pressing the C.
   APPLE MACINTOSH ™ : For Apple Mac OS X: In System Preferences, International, Input Menu, Choose, "US Extended".  This is a Unicode© input method.  You can always include more than one keyboard setting in your Input Menu, if this doesn't suit your primary language.
   For the hat (ĉapelo) on top, simply hold Option and hit the 6 key, then type the character you want!  The 6 key has the hat above the six!  : )   ĉ Ĉ ĝ Ĝ ĥ Ĥ ĵ Ĵ ŝ Ŝ.  To type the ŭ or Ŭ, with the upside down ĉapelo, this symbol is called a "breve", so hold Option and hit the B key, then type u or U.
   Make sure your e-mail program is set to use the character encoding Unicode (UTF-8), not Western ISO-8859-1, or whatever. – Ian Green©, Australia, by e-mail of Nov 13, 2007, supplied the Apple Macintosh information.
   LOSSES in Microsoft ® WORD ©: The four standard keyboard shortcuts that are lost in Word have substitutes, namely:
  • Alt + C to close a pane. Closing a pane can be done by clicking the [X] box at top right, or pressing [Alt] + [F4], or closing the icon at the foot of the screen.
  • Alt + G which opens Go menu. Press [Ctrl] + G, or click "Edit", then "Go to".
  • Alt + H which opens Help. Help is opened mostly by clicking "Help" or tapping [F1] key.
  • Alt + Capital U which Updates Fields. Updating Fields (seldom required) can sometimes be done by Selecting the required words, and Right Clicking, then clicking "Update Fields".
      FONTS: Most popular fonts will accept the Esperanto accents successfully, and here is a selection:-  
    Arial Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ Monotype Corsiva Ĉ ĉ  Ĝ ĝ  Ĥ ĥ  Ĵ ĵ  Ŝ ŝ  Ŭ ŭ
    Comic Sans MS Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ Times New Roman   Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ
    Courier New Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ Verdana Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ
    Doc. 231.   Internet Address = http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/shortcutkeys.htm
    (For an Esperanto version, click http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/fulmoklavoj.htm )
    Discovered by John C. Massam on 30 Nov 2001, ©2001-2012, 46 Cobine Way, Greenwood (a suburb of Perth), WA, 6024, Australia.  Telephone +61 ( 0 ) 8  9343 9532, Mobile Cellphone 0408 054 319

    Symbols dialogue box, Word 2000
    WORD 2000: The "Symbols" dialogue box obtained (excuse error) when you click "Insert,"
    then click "Symbol", and then click "Symbols".

       Fonts that take the accents attractively include:
    (A-D) Arial, Arial Black, Arial Narrow, Arial Unicode Ms, Andale Mono, Book Antiqua, Bookman Old Style, Century Gothic, Century Schoolbook, Comic Sans MS, Courier New,
    (E-H) Garamond, Georgia, Haettenschweiler,
    (I-N) Impact, Lucida Console, Lucida Sans Unicode, Monotype Corsiva,
    (O-T) Palatino Linotype, Tahoma, Times New Roman,
    (U-Z) Verdana, Verdana Eo, and Verdana Ref.
       Fonts that will NOT take the accents attractively include: Algerian, Arioso, Bauhaus 93, Blackadder ITC, Bradley Hand ITC, Brush Script MT,Cornet, Edwardian Script IT, Forte, Freestyle Script, French Script MT, Gigi, HandStroke, Harlow Solid Italic, Informal Roman, Jokerman, Kunstler Script , Lucida Calligraphy, Lucida Handwriting, Matura MT Script Capitals, Mistral (unattractive Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ), Palace Script MT, Pristina, Rage Italic, Ravia, Scogin, Script MT Bold, Tempus Sans ITC, Viner Hand ITC.

    Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ

       In past years Esperantists had invented programmes and devised special Esperanto fonts, but now the need for these might be less because of the improving technology.
       The International Language can now be publicised as a practical tongue, no longer requiring time-consuming knowledge of typefaces and computer applications in order to render it correctly on paper.

    World, spinning

    א ב ג , ا ب ت

       Or, perhaps you would like to occasionally use words made from unique alphabets such as Hebrew and Yiddish - gimel ג , beth ב , aleph א , and Arabic - ta ت , ba ب , alif ا , or Greek Ω θ Ξ λ ζ έ, Russian and Serbian Ж Д Щ.   You can do this and much more, if you study the "Symbols" section in the Symbol dialogue box plus the "Special Characters" section for such characters as © ® ™ £ €. Both sections are accessed by clicking "Insert", then "Symbol".
       ¿ Do you know that a few minutes study will empower you to easily type (almost as a matter of course) the French, Italian, etc. grave, acute, and circumflex letters, for example, è é ê, and the Spanish tilde, ñõ? Ånd you wøn't need a lot of training to type some Swedish, Gërmän, and Čzech. Some of these can be done on Word 97, as well as Word 2000 and later versions.
       BACKGROUND: After the personal computer became popular, the majority of machines either could not produce Esperanto's accented letters in word-processing, or could only produce them by difficult methods.
       After a few years, Esperanto webmasters had known that Unicode coding could put the special letters onto webpages, therefore they suspected that the accented letters must have been "inside" the computer systems somewhere.
       Independently, by investigation, on 30th November 2001 I thought I had "discovered" the "secret" of producing Esperanto letters easily in Microsoft Word 2000, using Windows 98.  The six special letters can be keyboarded while typing, without requiring special fonts, special programmes, or annoying code tables.
       However, two previously written explanations of how to easily produce accented letters, using the inbuilt power of Word, from Word 97 onwards, on 28 December 2001 became known to me by e-mail (see elsewhere in this document).

    A, B, C, Ĉ, D, E, F, G, Ĝ, H, Ĥ, I, J, Ĵ,
    K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, Ŝ, T, U, Ŭ, V, Z.
    a, b, c, ĉ, d, e, f, g, ĝ, h, ĥ, i, j, ĵ,
    k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, ŝ, t, u, ŭ, v, z.

  • Prof. John Wells, England, http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/html-ttt/uniktest.htm for (now somewhat outdated) Unicode information, http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/dia/supersignoj2.htm for the proposed Esperanto word "bovlo" (breve, "ronda hoketo"), and http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/ipa-unicode.htm for updated wide-ranging Unicode facts.
  • Facts were checked in HTML Complete, Brenda Frink and Michael Anderson (eds.), 1999, San Francisco, Sybex http://www.sybex.com , pp 957-65.
  • Microsoft Word 2000's Symbols and Special Characters dialogue box.
  • Windows 98's Character Map.
  • Reference was made to material Copyright © International Organization for Standardization 1986, and to The Unicode Standard 3.0, Copyright © 1991-2000, Unicode™, Inc., http://www.unicode.org   (Unicode identifies each character by a hexadecimal number, that I converted into a decimal number for use on the webpage version.  Thanks to GANM and JW I now know that the hexadecimal number, if preceded by an "x", will work for webpages just like the decimal numbers.  Example: Ŭ gives the same result as Ŭ, namely Ŭ.)
  • Alan Mendelawitz, Perth, for feedback, experimentation, and correcting errors, BUT CHANGES HAVE BEEN MADE AFTERWARDS.
  • G.A.N.M. of Perth, for tip-off that Word 97 had similar accent capabilities as Word 2000.
  • C.V.P. of Perth, for facilities to test Word 97.    I would appreciate anyone sending me information about easy methods to produce accented letters in word-processing with Linux and other Operating Systems, as well as with the StarOffice suite. -- JOHN MASSAM, Greenwood, Western Australia.
       The new information I received on 28 December 2001 after e-mailing the well-known Professor John Wells of England showed that translators Dermod Quirke and Brian Holser of Halifax, north England, in the article "The easy way to type foreign alphabets and accented letters in MS Word" dated 1 July 2001, suggested using the AutoCorrect system, under which Esperanto, which has only six accented letters (ĉ ĝ ĥ ĵ ŝ ŭ), is given the codes \c\, \g\ and so on, to produce ĉ, ĝ etc.
       They recommend: "When you create an AutoCorrect code, it should always be lower case (small letters). But then, when you use the code in a document, type it in lower case if you want a small letter, but in upper case if you want a capital."
       People who want special letters in a few different languages ought to consider adopting the AutoCorrect system. Read their paper at: http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/Eureka.doc
       Shortcut Keys for Esperanto: Professor Wells stated that for the past eighteen months or more he had been telling people the same message as I started doing soon after I discovered how to use Word's inbuilt capacity to easily produce accented letters by the Shortcut Key method, that is, the [Alt] + C method.  A lecture handout of his entitled "Multlingveco kaj la interreta revolucio" (in Esperanto) and dated 3 November 2001 is on this website at verona-folio.doc advocating the Shortcut Key, i.e. the [Alt] + C, method.
       In Esperanto at http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/retarevolucio.htm (sighted 15 Feb '02 and 17 Feb 2010).  Professor John Wells, Professor of Linguistics, University College, London, writes:
       Se vi havas la tekstoredaktilon Word, en versio Word 97 aŭ posta, vi havas Unikod-kapablan redaktilon kaj vi povas rekte redakti en Esperanto. (Necesas, kompreneble, havi tiparon WGL4 kaj ŝalti multlingvan subtenon — vidu supre.)
       Sed via klavaro ne montras la Esperantajn literojn. Kion fari? La plej simpla maniero enmeti supersignitan literon en via dokumento estas fari jene:
       iru al la menuo Enŝovu (Insert) kaj elektu Simbolo… (Symbol) elektu Tiparo: (normala teksto) (Font: (normal text)) elektu la koncernan supersignitan literon el la skatolo faru Enŝovu (Insert), Fermu (Close)
       Alia maniero estas asigni por ĉiu supersignita litero specialan klavkombinon, kaj krei mallongigon (simbolan ligilon, shortcut) por difini ĝin. Ekzemple, por difini la klavkombinon Alt c por la litero ĉ, faru jene:
       malfermu dokumenton en Word
    elektu tiparon, ekzemple Times New Roman
    (same kiel 1,2,3 supre)
    Mallongiga Klavo (Shortcut Key)
    (premu Alt)
    Asignu, Fermu, Fermu (Assign, Close, Close).
       TRY IT OUT: To display a Word 2000 version of this article, for you to try out at home, click shortcutkeys.doc   For an Esperanto translation, click fulmoklavoj.htm and/or fulmoklavoj.doc .  Explanations by John Wells (in Esperanto) are at http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/retarevolucio.htm and verona-folio.doc  
       Other languages: For charts of the already-existing Shortcut Keys to use French, Italian, Spanish, German, Nordic and other alphabets, plus special characters, in Word 97 and 2000 documents, visit (English) accentskeys.rtf or elwa/keyboard.htm .  To understand how Unicode makes the International Phonetic Alphabet (I.P.A.) and linguistic symbols displayable in documents and on webpages, visit a John Wells webpage at http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/ipa-unicode.htm (English)
       WEBPAGES: For information on using Unicode to put Esperanto's accented letters onto internet webpages, see (English) elwa/unicoding.htm . The webpage elwa/multilingual.htm is OUTDATED NOW.
    www.johnm.multiline.com.au/elwa/multilingual.htm (OUTDATED)
    www.johnm.multiline.com.au/exunic.htm (OUTDATED)
    TO SET LANGUAGE/S in Word 2007 (devised Nov '08, and to the webpage "shortcutkeys.htm" on 25 Nov 08)
    ( NOTE: each stroke "/" means to do a Left Click with the Mouse, or to press the [Enter] key).
    Review / Set Language / English (Australia) / Default / Yes / OK /

    To make KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS in Word 2007
    Insert / Symbol / More Symbols/ (find required letter or symbol, say ¥) / {Shortcut Key} / (Hold down simultaneously Alt and Y), Assign / Close / Close /
    From then on
    YEN (Japanese currency) SYMBOL: [Alt] + Y => ¥

    KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS I have made:-
    DECIMAL point (British), or Middle Dot, character code 00B7 - [Alt] + . => ·
    BRITISH etc. POUND SIGN (standard in Word 2000):- [Alt] + 5 => £
    ESPERANTO ACCENTED LETTERS: Press [Alt] and the letters as required (with [Shift] added for Capital letters), to yield: Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭ ŭ

    EURO CURRENCY SIGN:= [Alt] + [Ctrl] + E => €
    DOLLAR SIGN: - [Shift] + 4 => $
    BRITISH etc. POUND SIGN (standard in some versions):- [Alt] + 5 => £

    DEGREE (angles, etc) [Ctrl] + [Shift] + @, [Spacebar] => º
    NONBREAKING SPACE:- [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [Spacebar] => (a nonbreaking space, which is used to prevent characters at line breaks being unsightly or poorly-aligned).
    ELLIPSIS (three dots), to show omission of some text (or in some texts, a break in the action, or change of mood, etc):- [Alt] + [Ctrl] + . => … (horizontal ellipsis, i.e., three dot leader)
    Other languages:- ö, à, é, ô

    Single (6-shaped) opening quote:- [Ctrl] + `(grave accent, near top left), ` (grave again) => ‘
    Single (9-shaped) closing quote AND apostrophe:- [Ctrl] + ' (apostrophe mark) => ’
    Double opening quotes:- [Ctrl] + `(grave accent), [Shift] + " => “
    Double closing quotes:-   [Ctrl] + ' (apostrophe), [Shift] + " => ”
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    The Shortcut Key method was discovered independently by John C. Massam on 30 November 2001. The main core of this document was hived off La Nigra Cigno Nov-Dec '01 and "elwa/keyboard.htm" with Microsoft® WordPad© on 12 December 2001, to WWW 14 December 2001, corrected (3rd loss of function) 17 Feb 02, later a 4th loss of function was recorded, Apple Macintosh method using Option key (sent by Ian Green ©, Australia, by e-mail of Nov 13, 2007) was copied from elwa/keyboard.htm on 06 Oct 08, last modified on 14 Dec 2012
    Translations: http://babelfish.altavista.com/  www.tranexp.com/  www.alis.com/  http://lingvo.org/traduku
    John Massam, 46 Cobine Way, Greenwood (a suburb of Perth, 31°58'S, 115°49'E), Western Australia, 6024, Australia. Telephone +61 ( 0 ) 8   9343 9532, Cellular Mobile 0408 054 319
    Click – Esperanto Search Engine: http://www.google.com/webhp?hl=eo
    Doc. 231.   URL = http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/shortcutkeys.htm