Keyboard Esperanto and other âççêňţĕđ letters with Microsoft Word and Apple

 Esperanto - Universal Helper Language flag   
Use "Shortcut Keys" to easily display the Esperanto special letters and other languages.
   ESPERANTO uses six accented letters, Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ, (or we use substitutes such as Cx … Ux, or C^ … U~, or Ch … Sh, or C' … U').
   On November 30, 2001, I discovered how to set up computers using Microsoft ® Windows © and Word © to produce these letters off the keyboard WITHOUT DOWNLOADING programmes or fonts for Esperanto.  When in December I contacted phonetics expert Prof. John Wells of London, he replied that Word 97 had been Unicode-enabled, and he had been trying to get Esperantists to use the shortcut methods for 18 months or more.
   On November 13, 2007, Ian Green, Australia, sent me the easy Unicode © procedures for Esperanto on Apple ® Macintosh ™.
   MICROSOFT WORD:  Only once, to easily type the accented Esperanto letters, you need to set up Shortcut Keys for them.
1. Open Microsoft Word 2007
2. Point with the Mouse Cursor to the Menu Bar near the top, and find "Insert", Click.  Look across the top and find "Ω Symbol", Click, find "More Symbols", Click.
OR, if Word 97, Word 2000 or similar:
A 1. Open Word.
A 2. Point with the Mouse Cursor to the Menu Bar near the top, and find "Insert", Click, "Symbol", Click, (Symbols), Click.

3. Ensure that in the Dialogue Box thus revealed the "Font" is shown as "(normal text)", and that the Scroll Bar indicator is at the top.
4. Click any middle character in the top row.  Using the Arrow Keys, or the Cursor, navigate downwards looking for the capital circumflexed Ĉ (or, C with a hat, which I call special C).  In Word 2007 it will be in the 13th row. (In Word 2000, it is visible in the 8th row, 4th from the left.  In Word 97, it is also in the 8th row, 2nd from left.  The circumflex has a point at the top, so do NOT confuse it with Č which has a downward pointing "caron")  Click Ĉ, which has the point going upwards.
5. Find "Shortcut Key," Click.  Ensure that the "Save changes in" is being assigned to "".  (Advanced users might do differently.)
6. Hold down [Alt] and [Shift], then press C
7. Find "Assign," Click. This will assign that keyboard shortcut to capital C circumflex, i.e., Ĉ.
8. Find "Close," Click.  (Now assign next character)
9. (Perhaps you won't need this: Insert / Symbol / Symbols (or, More Symbols) / .)
10. See the small circumflexed ĉ, and click it.
11. Point to "Shortcut Key," Click.
12. Simultaneously press [Alt] + c.  Click "Assign".  Click "Close".
   Continue, using the arrow keys to find Ĝ etc. (avoiding Ğ with a downcurved breve), right through to Ŝ and ŝ , then look for Ŭ and ŭ , which do not have circumflexes, but have downward curving breves, so DO NOT CONFUSE them with Û and û .
 Using the system:-  

Alt + Shift + C => Ĉ
Alt + c => ĉ

Alt + Shift + G => Ĝ
Alt + g => ĝ

Alt + Shift + H => Ĥ
Alt + h => ĥ

Alt + Shift + J => Ĵ
Alt + j => ĵ

Alt + Shift + S => Ŝ
Alt + s => ŝ

Alt + Shift + U => Ŭ
Alt + u => ŭ

To type capital Ĉ, hold down the [Alt] plus [Shift] keys and press C.  For small ĉ, hold down [Alt] and type c, and so on for Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ.  Enjoy!  (End of first section on Microsoft Word)
    APPLE MACINTOSH ™:   For Apple Mac OS X: In System Preferences, International, Input Menu, Choose, "US Extended".  This is a Unicode © input method.  You can always include more than one keyboard setting in your Input Menu, if this doesn't suit your primary language.
   For the hat (ĉapelo) on top, simply hold Option and hit the 6 key, then type the character you want!  The 6 key has the hat above the six!  : )   ĉ Ĉ ĝ Ĝ ĥ Ĥ ĵ Ĵ ŝ Ŝ.  To type the ŭ or Ŭ, with the upside down ĉapelo, this symbol is called a "breve", so hold Option and hit the B key, then type u or U.
   Make sure your e-mail program is set to use the character encoding Unicode (UTF-8), not Western ISO-8859-1, or whatever. – Ian Green©, Australia, by e-mail of Nov 13, 2007, supplied the Apple Macintosh information.  (End of section on Apple Macintosh computers.)
  FONTS: Most popular fonts will accept the Esperanto accents successfully, and here is a selection:-  
Arial Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ Monotype Corsiva Ĉ ĉ  Ĝ ĝ  Ĥ ĥ  Ĵ ĵ  Ŝ ŝ  Ŭ ŭ
Comic Sans MS Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ Times New Roman   Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ
Courier New Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ Verdana Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ

   MICROSOFT WORD – REPLACEMENTS for five lost Word keyboard shortcuts:
  • Alt + C to close a pane. Click the [X] box at top right, or press [Alt] + [F4], or close icon at the screen's foot.
  • Alt + C to make the Copyright symbol ©. Use Ctrl + Alt + C => ©.
  • Alt + G which opens Go menu. Press [Ctrl] + G, or click "Edit", then "Go to".
  • Alt + H which opens Help. Click "Help," or tap the [F1] key.
  • Alt + Capital U which Updates Fields. Tap [F9], or, select the required words, Right Click, then left-click "Update Fields".
    Click here
    URL =
    Copyright ©30 Nov 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2012, John C. MASSAM, 46 Cobine Way, Greenwood (suburb of Perth), WA, 6024, Australia. +61 ( 0 ) 8  9343 9532, 0408 054 319.
       Fonts which attractively accept the accents include:-
    (A-D) Arial, Arial Black, Arial Narrow, Arial Unicode Ms, Andale Mono, Book Antiqua, Bookman Old Style, Century Gothic, Century Schoolbook, Comic Sans MS, Courier New,
    (E-H) Garamond, Georgia, Haettenschweiler,
    (I-N) Impact, Lucida Console, Lucida Sans Unicode, Monotype Corsiva,
    (O-T) Palatino Linotype, Tahoma, Times New Roman,
    (U-Z) Verdana, Verdana Eo, and Verdana Ref.

       Fonts that do NOT accept the accents attractively include:- Algerian, Arioso, Bauhaus 93, Blackadder ITC, Bradley Hand ITC, Brush Script MT,Cornet, Edwardian Script IT, Forte, Freestyle Script, French Script MT, Gigi, HandStroke, Harlow Solid Italic, Informal Roman, Jokerman, Kunstler Script, Lucida Calligraphy, Lucida Handwriting, Matura MT Script Capitals, Mistral (mal-alloge cghjsu), Palace Script MT , Pristina, Rage Italic, Ravia, Scogin, Script MT Bold, Tempus Sans ITC, Viner Hand ITC.
       Information would be appreciated about easy production of accented letters with other Operating Systems, as well as the StarOffice suite.

       (Note: Assigning keystrokes for Esperanto as shown above does not seem to work in "Microsoft WordPad", but there are two ways to get them.  One can paste the Esperanto letters from Word to WordPad, but that is of limited practical use.  Another slow method is to hold down [Alt] while entering the correct number code off the Numeric Keypad. 
       The codes are: Hold down [Alt], use the Numeric Keypad: 264 Ĉ, 265 ĉ, 284 Ĝ, 285 ĝ, 292 Ĥ, 293 ĥ, 308 Ĵ, 309 ĵ, 348 Ŝ, 349 ŝ, 364 Ŭ, 365 ŭ.
       For Microsoft Notepad, using Cx cx, or C^ c^, to U~ u~, or suchlike, seems to be reasonable.  The Webmaster DOES NOT support the idea of using the apostrophe ( ' ) after letters that ought to have accents, because the apostrophe has a function in Esperanto poetry to show the omission of a letter or letters, just as in English.

    Symbols dialogue box, Word 2000
    WORD 2000: The "Symbols" dialogue box obtained when one clicks "Insert,"
    then clicks "Symbol", and then clicks "Symbols".
    NATURAL LANGUAGES: ACCENTED and OTHER DIFFERENT LETTERS such as in French, Italian, German, Spanish, Polish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and many other languages can be typed off the keyboard, using the SYSTEM BUILT IN since 1997, using the [Alt] and/or [Ctrl] keys in "Microsoft Word", and to a lesser extent in "Microsoft WordPad ©" on Windows 98 and following, without having a special Programme, and without downloading specialised Typefaces.

       As well as the other usages of alphabets such as in letters like Ђ Є Ї Ф Ш, quite unique alphabets can be used such as Greek Ω θ Ξ λ ζ έ, Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian etc. Ж Д Щ, Hebrew and Yiddish gimel ג, beth ב, aleph א, and Arabic ta ت, ba ب, alif ا.
       Mathematical, symbolic, and drawing characters can also be produced by these methods, which can be accessed through Word© 2000's Symbols dialogue box, which I found via the Insert menu.  Later I was told, and checked this on 25 December 2001, that Word 97 can produce the natural languages' accents in a similar way. 
       Also, descriptions of the markings and the letters come from the Character Map, accessed as follows: Start/ Programs/ Accessories/ System Tools/ Character Map.
       Generally, if a person is going to do extensive writing in some of these languages, the preferred choice is to install a proper separate system so the whole alphabet can be typed straight off like ordinary letters, while keeping your computer also able to type in your everyday language.

       Keystrokes can also be assigned for symbols and characters, but some of them, including a "Smiley Face" (on Internet using J in Windings font, or ☺), in Word 2000 is Alt + 1 (numeric keyboard), ☺, and the reverse version is Alt + 2, ☻ ☻.
       Notepad ©: (The [Alt] + numbers methods also work in Microsoft Notepad ©.)

    In the following, wherever a coding of this form – « or ‹ – appears, that is not for typing, but is Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and/or Unicode © for Webpages.
       Note: Many in the following groups use [Ctrl], not [Alt], and such strokes are often done in two groups, NOT simultaneously. The pause between two such groups of keystrokes is usually shown by a comma.
       FRENCH, etc. (already BUILT INTO Word 97 and Word 2000 and later – some of these work in WordPad©, and some will operate in WordPad only by using [Alt] plus numbers off the numeric keypad (that is, the number keys at the right of the keyboard).
    C cedilla: Ctrl + , (comma), pause, Shift + C = Ç            Ctrl + , (pause) c = ç (c cedil)
    E grave: Ctrl + ` (grave accent), pause, Shift + E = È       Ctrl + ` (pause), e = è (e grave)
    E acute: Ctrl + ' (apostrophe), Shift + E = É                    Ctrl + ', e = é (e acute) OR é (é)
    E circumflex: Ctrl + Shift + ^, Shift + E = Ê                     Ctrl + Shift + ^, e = ê (e circ)
    and so on for all the grave, acute, and circumflex letters, i.e., à á â   è é ê   ì í î   ò ó ô   ù ú û   ý   in Word, but some might not work in WordPad.

    French Quotation, double, Opening: &#171; &laquo; Ctrl + `, Shift + < = «        
    Closing: &#187; &raquo; Ctrl + `, Shift + > = »
      Opening, for WordPad: Alt + 0171 (numeric keypad) = «       Closing: Alt + 0187 (num) = »
    French Quotation, single, Opening: &#8249; &lsaquo; Alt + 0139 (num) = ‹            
    Closing: &#8250; &rsaquo; Alt + 0155 = ›
    A umlaut: Ctrl + Shift + : (colon), Shift + A = Ä              Ctrl + Shift + : , a = ä (a uml)
    and so on: ë ï ö ü ÿ
       Sharp s: &#223; Ctrl + Shift + & , s => ß (this is NOT an 8)
    Ditto in WordPad: Alt + 0223 (numeric keypad) => ß (this is NOT an 8)
    German double low 9-shape opening Quotation marks on the line: &#8222; (and &#132) Alt + 0132 (or WordPad Alt + 08222) => „
    German double high 6-shape CLOSING Quotation marks (that look like English opening ones), &#x201c; Alt + 0147 (numeric keypad) (or WordPad Alt + 00147) => “
       SPANISH, etc.
    N tilde: Ctrl + Shift + ~, Shift + N = Ñ                            Ctrl + Shift + ~, n => ñ
    and similarly for Ã ã   Õ õ
       Inverted exclamation mark: Alt + Ctrl + Shift + ! => ¡
    Ditto in WordPad: Alt + 0161 (num.) => ¡
    Inverted question mark: Alt + Ctrl + Shift + ? => ¿
    Ditto in WordPad: Alt + 0191 (num.) => ¿
       NORDIC, etc.
    A ring (angstrom): Ctrl + Shift + @, Shift + A => Å             Ctrl + Shift + @, a => å (a ring)
    Ditto in WordPad: Alt + 0197 (num.) = Å                      Alt + 0229 (num.) = å
    AE ligature: Ctrl + Shift + &, Shift + A = Æ                   Ctrl + Shift + &, a = æ (ae lig)
    Ditto in WordPad: Alt + 0198 (num.) = Æ                     Alt + 0230 (num.) = æ
    OE ligature: Ctrl + Shift + &, Shift + O = Œ                   Ctrl + Shift + &, o = œ
    Ditto in WordPad: Alt + 0140 (num.) = Œ                     Alt + 0156 (num.) = œ
    O slash: Ctrl + /, Shift + O = Ø                                      Ctrl + /, o = ø (o slash)
    Ditto in WordPad: Alt + 0216 (num.) = Ø                      Alt + 0248 (num.) = ø
    Eth (Cap.): Ctrl + ', Shift + D = Ð                                  Ctrl + ', d = ð (l/c eth)
    Ditto in WordPad: Alt + 0208 (num.) = Ð                      Alt + 0240 (num.) = ð
    Thorn (Cap.): Alt + 0222 (numeric keypad) = Þ              Alt + 0254 (numeric keypad) = þ (l/c thorn)
       CZECH, POLISH, etc.
    Letters like Čč Ċċ Ğğ Łł can be programmed to work off the keyboard if required regularly, or if only used occasionally they can be inserted as required by Insert / Symbol / (select) / Insert
    To obtain Š caron or š caron, try Alt+Ctrl+Shift+^, Shift+S. Similar for the small s caron.
    Pounds (sterling, monetary): Alt + 5 = £ Pounds: Alt + 0163 (numeric keypad) = £
    Franks (monetary unit, since abolished), make it: Alt + F
    Cents: Ctrl + /, c = ¢
    Euro: Ctrl + Alt + E = € OR, Alt + 0128 (num.) = €
    (Euro: Ctrl + 2 doesn't work in Word on my computer)
    Yen Unicode is &yen; , and in Word might be best made Ctrl + Y => ¥
       Business, Publishing:
       Copyright (C style): &copy; = Ctrl + Alt + C = ©   Registered TM (R style) &reg; = Ctrl + Alt + R = ®
    Trade Mark (TM style) &trade; = Ctrl + Alt + T = ™
       Bullet: &#8226; or &#149; Alt + 0149 (numeric keypad) = • or = •
    Mid dot: &#183; &middot; = Alt + 0183 (numeric keypad) = ·, can make it Alt + . (full stop).
    Pilcrow (paragraph) &#182; Alt + 0182 (numeric) = ¶     Section mark: Alt + 0167 (num.) = §
    Dagger: Alt + 0134 (num. keypad) = †                            Double dagger: Alt + 0135 (num.) = ‡
       Quotation marks, curved, single:
    Ctrl + ` (grave), ` (grave again) = ‘ (start)                        Ctrl + ', ' = ’ (end, and apostrophe)
    Quotation marks, curved, double:
    Ctrl + ` (grave), Shift + " = “ (start)                                 Ctrl + ', Shift + " = ” (end)
       Em dash: &#8212; Ctrl + Alt + - (numeric keypad) = —
       En dash: Ctrl + - (num. keypad) = – (My Word 2000 gives unexpected results for this).
    Webpages can use &ndash; = – instead of &#8211;
    (Warning: With Word 2000 unexpected consequences may occur.  I suggest the above Word shortcut keys need checking before use.  The dash can be represented by a hyphen (-) with a space each side, though some people use two hyphens with or without a space each side.)
       Mathematical, Sciences, etc.
    To make a fraction (in this passage, each forward slash "/" means to click): Insert / Field / (Field Names, find:) Eq / (in the EQ line) / , Type: \f(Numerator,Denominator) , [OK] /
       Superscript, subscript, ordinal indicators, degree symbol:  The easiest way is to learn these two shortcut keystroke sequences:
    Superscript: Ctrl + Shift + "+", type say an "n" => n . Toggle, that is, To resume normal typing, repeat the Ctrl + Shift + "+" . So, try: Masculine and degree shown by o, while Feminine is denoted by a .
    Subscript: Ctrl + "=", type say a 2, => 2 .Toggle, that is, To resume normal typing, repeat the Ctrl + "=" .  So, try H2SO4 , and CO2 (carbon dioxide).
       Aren't the above steps easier than having to learn the following from the books, tables, etc.?
    Superscript 1: Alt + 0185 (numerical keypad) = ¹                                 Superscript 2: Alt + 0178 (num) = ²
    Superscript 3: Alt + 0179 (num)= ³
    Ordinal indicator, feminine: Alt + 0170 (num) = ª
    Ctrl + Shift + @ , Spacebar = º or °              Ordinal ind., masculine: Alt + 0186 (num) = º
    Degree: Alt + 0176 (num) = °
    Smiley [Alt] + 1 =   J (I had devised Alt + 0 some years back, but today accidentally discovered it was Alt + 1 (numeric keyboard) -jcm 14 Dec 2012)
    Smiley (white on black, i.e., reverse), Alt + 2.

    Mid dot: &#183; (I invented) Ctrl + . (full stop, period) => · , or the standard is, Alt + 0183 (numeric keypad) => ·
       I set this myself:
    Try typing on e-mails or (in Microsoft Word) : ) for a "smiley" (is it bigger?), then : ( for a scowling face, or : | for a non-emotional face. (Note: The | is obtained by [Shift]+\ .)  If these don't work, do not worry – it means that AutoCorrect is not turned on.  AutoCorrect can be a mixed blessing at times!  In fact, it can ruin your day!
       FOR A WIDER UNDERSTANDING of the names of the various accent marks, and names of letters in some other languages, and/or to code accented letters, you could follow the directories in Windows Explorer like this (assuming your main hard disk is labelled "C"): C / Windows / charmap.exe, or use the Windows key or Start button like this: Start/ Programs/ Accessories/ System Tools/ Character Map.  Then make a shortcut icon of the Character Map on the desktop, so you can refer to it when required.  The Insert / Symbol way gives more information, and tells you if a keystroke sequence has already been assigned, or if the one you plan is already being used for an important different Windows function.
       For example, in the Character Map you could find this:
    Y acute: Alt + 0221 = Ý (for webpage, use &Yacute;)                                      Alt + 0253 = ý (for webpage, use &yacute;)
    This will work both in Word and in WordPad
       But, in Word, as explained above, in the Symbols dialogue box you discovered this easier method:
    Y acute: Ctrl + ', Shift + Y = Ý                                                  Ctrl + ', y = ý
       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Microsoft Word 2000's Symbols and Special Characters dialogue box. Windows 98's Character Map. Prof. John Wells, England,   Portions were adapted from HTML Complete, Brenda Frink and Michael Anderson (eds.), 1999, Sybex, San Francisco, pp 957-65. Portions were adapted from material Copyright © International Organization for Standardization 1986. Portions were adapted from The Unicode Standard 3.0, Copyright © 1991-2000, Unicode, Inc.; Alan Mendelawitz, Perth for reporting that [Alt] + H, meaning Help, would be lost with this method; Gerard A. N. Massam, Perth, for pointing out that this method would work with Word 97, and Carol V. Phillips, Perth, for allowing experimentation with Word 97; Ian Green, Australia, 13 Nov 07 for giving Apple Macintosh methods.
       – Copyright © 2001-2012 John Massam, Greenwood, Western Australia. I discovered the methods for Word© on 30 Nov 2001.  My omission of Ctrl + H for Help menu was reported by Alan Mendelawitz 03 Dec 2001

    A, B, C, Ĉ, D, E, F, G, Ĝ, H, Ĥ, I, J, Ĵ,
    K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, Ŝ, T, U, Ŭ, V, Z.
    a, b, c, ĉ, d, e, f, g, ĝ, h, ĥ, i, j, ĵ,
    k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, ŝ, t, u, ŭ, v, z.


       After discovering, independently, on 30 November 2001 the capacity of Word to easily produce Esperanto's accented letters off the keyboard, I e-mailed Professor John Wells of London University College about the need to update a webpage about this matter. His reply on 28 December 2001 was:
       John -
       >The news is, that Unicode works now without downloading fonts.
       Well yes, I had noticed! It's because Word 97 is Unicode-enabled, and you now get several WGL4 fonts included with Windows/Word. For the last eighteen months or more I have been telling people the same message as you have. See the attached lecture handout. [verona-folio.doc]
       My professional interest in this has been focussed on phonetic symbols rather than on language orthographies. See ,
       You say "Internet Explorer 6.0 often leaves the accents off when printing". This is probably a matter of having the right printer driver. I have Windows 2000 and a new HP printer, and everything works correctly for IE, NN, Word, and (at last!) Powerpoint.
       > that "nefontoj" is probably an illegitimate formation),
       And how! Fonts aren't fontoj but tiparoj. Anyhow, it's not 'no fonts' but 'no extra fonts', 'without installing a special font'. Sen speciala tiparo.
       All the best
       John Wells
    * Professor John Wells is a phonetics expert, at University College, London. Among many other books, he is the editor of the Teach Yourself Concise Esperanto and English Dictionary, 1969 and at least 11 more printings, Hodder and Stoughton, London.

       The Esperanto League of WA used to use an IBM-compatible PC PCU 70, operating with Microsoft® Windows 98© second edition, and we saw the special letters in two browsers – Netscape® Communicator© version 4.72, and Microsoft Internet Explorer© v. 6.0.  But only Netscape would print the accented letters from webpages onto paper in the equipment at the Esperanto League office, and at my home.
       At the office that then existed we used to print on a Canon BJC-265SP, and at home I used a Canon BJ-20. At home I had an IBM-compatible PC COMDEK, with Microsoft Windows 98, and saw the accented letters in Netscape Communicator 4.78 and Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0. To reproduce some of the characters on this webpage, use was made of Unicode™ tables, and HTML Complete, Brenda Frink and Michael Anderson (eds), 1999, San Francisco, Sybex. See also unicoding.htm and multilingual.htm.
  • Netscape users: If you see question marks (??) on your screen when viewing the following with Netscape – Ĉĉ Ĝĝ Ĥĥ Ĵĵ Ŝŝ Ŭŭ – the problem might disappear if you click "Back", allow the previous webpage to appear, then click "Forward".  If you succeed, Netscape will show Esperanto's accented letters and allow you to print them on paper; Internet Explorer 6.0 often leaves the accents off when printing.

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       Esperanto League of Western Australia (Inc.), c/o 46 Cobine Way, Greenwood, WA, 6024, Australia; Telephone: +61 ( 0 ) 8 9343 9532;

    , Perth is at 31°58'S, 115°49'E

    Composed 30 Novembro 01, coded using Microsoft® WordPad © on 02 Decembro 2001, modified and to WWW 03 Dec 01, modified at home 18 Septembro 02, lightened BGCOLOR to Honeydew "f0fff0" on 13 Decembro 03; Alt + G loss added 22 Junio 05; added Apple Macintosh instructions (Ian Green's) 13 Novembro 07; website URL updated 07 Januaro 09; last modified on Monday 17 June 2013
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