In his book Esperanto: A Language for the Global Village, Sylvan Zaft makes a plea for using the rootwords of the Esperanto language to form the complex words, and to avoid adopting words from other languages, even the words that are "international."  The person whose mother tongue is Chinese, Hindi, African, Amerindian, Australian Aboriginal, etc, will find this method easier. So will children and other young people. Please read this, adapted from Mr Taft's writings:

The Method of Combining Already-Existing Syllables
   One method of forming words is to combine morphemes ("little words") which already existed in the language.  Here are some examples:

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   1. Plibonigo (four morphemes): pli = more, bon = good, ig = make, o = [noun marker], so "Plibonigo" means something that makes something else better.  Change the "–ig" to "–igx" (becomes) and you have "plibonigxo" which means something that has become better.  English uses the word "improvement" for both of these ideas.
   2. Samseksamanto (five morphemes): sam = same, seks = sex, am = love, ant = one who, o = [noun marker], so "Samseksamanto" means someone who loves the same sex.  ... "homosexual."  Change the "sam" to "ali" (which means "other") and you have "aliseksamanto" which means someone who loves the other sex.  ... "heterosexual."
   3. Nevidebla (four morphemes): ne = not, vid = see, ebl = possible, a = [adjective marker], so "Nevidebla" is an adjective that means "not possible to see."  ... "invisible."

   Teknika kaj Dauxriga Edukado ("TAFE") Televido en Okcidenta Auxstralio subtenas la faradon de mal-longa lingva kurso Esperanto por Komencantoj ("Esperanto for Beginners"). Gxi konsistas el ok programoj, cxiu je 30 minutoj.
   TAFE Televido vidigis la kurson dum Februaro kaj Oktobro 2000 per Kanalo 31, kaj laux "Westlink."
   La kurson verkas Trish O'Connor, kiu estas ano de la Ligo, kaj sperta TAFE instruistino pri Arto.  Kvankam nur komencanto sxi mem, Trish iniciatis kaj verkis la 8-televidbendan kurson.  Fakte, krom la angla, lingvoj estis fremdaj al sxi gxis Owen Loneragan interesigis sxin pri Esperanto.
   La Ligo pagis sxian flugbileton al Sidnejo por la Somerlernejo dum Januaro 2000.

   Por pliaj informoj kontaktu: Trish O'Connor (08) 9307 1964,
aux Shirley Gradussov (08) 9337 2063, or la Ligo 9221 3250. -- adaptis el artikoloj de Shirley Gradussov el La Nigra Cigno, Perto, Novembro 1999, pgx 58-59
   There are many Esperantists who prefer this method because they can create new words which are easy to understand even by those people who do not know any of the source languages for most Esperanto vocabulary (Latin, French, English, German etc.)  Many Chinese Esperantists like this method because when they already know the components of the new word from earlier study it makes it very easy for them to learn the new word. ...
   The English word "hemicrania" and the Esperanto word "hemikranio" simply mean a headache on one side of the head. Someone who knows that "hemi" is a Greek root meaning "half" and that "cranium" or "kranio" means "skull" can figure out the meaning of the word.  However, Esperanto already had a common word meaning "half": duono.  Proponents of a simple (but not simplistic) vocabulary wonder why Esperanto needed a second, less common word for "half", hemi, to use in expert language?
   Proponents of keeping the vocabulary of Esperanto easily understood even by new Esperantists who do not know one of the source languages would prefer a term like "unuflanka kapdoloro".  "Unu" means one, "flank" means side, "kap" means head, and "doloro" means pain.  This term has the advantage of being instantly understood.  "Hemikranio" has the advantage of being more concise and of already being known to most experts in their native languages.
   Each time an entirely new word, unrelated to the basic morphemes, is brought in, a tiny extra learning burden is imposed. Let us take as an example the English word, "hematology."  Here are the current forms of this word in a few European languages and in Esperanto: English (American) hematology, English (British) haematology, Spanish hematología, French hématologie, Esperanto hematologio.
   ... A speaker of one of these languages who has already learned this term in his own language will immediately recognize it in Esperanto.  ...
   The situation is quite different when it comes to someone whose native language has an entirely different indigenous word for this concept.  Let us suppose that the Chinese have their own term for this concept.  Then the fact that a Chinese person knows his own language's word will not help him at all with the Esperanto word.  Likewise, his knowing the Esperanto word will not help him at all with the Chinese word.  The Chinese person has to learn two entirely different terms for the same concept, one in Esperanto and one in his native language whereas the speaker of one of the European languages in which the term already exists, whichever language he first learns it in will easily learn the word in the second language.
   This adds up to a very tiny advantage for the European language speaker when it is a matter of one word.  However, when the same kind of situation repeats itself hundreds or even thousands of times, it makes it significantly easier for a European or American to learn Esperanto than for a Chinese or a Korean or an Indonesian.
   From the point of view of those Esperantists who prefer to form words out of already existing, commonly understood morphemes, "hematologio" was a poor choice.  They would have preferred a word like sangoscienco (three morphemes): sang = blood, scienc= science, o = [noun marker].  ["Uzu simplaj radikoj en Esperanta," adaptis el Esperanta: Lingvo por la Mondgloba Urbeto,  en angla, © 1996]    Copyright © 1996, Sylvan Zaft
   Read more at . (Not displaying 22 Oct 2013.)

Date: Sunday, 24 January 1999 14:35:42

Dear John,

Thank you for the link to my web site and especially for spreading information about this important quality of Esperanto and the importance of using it consistently.
   The idea, of course, is in no way original with me.  Claude Piron emphasizes it in his books La Bona Lingvo and Le defi des langues.
   However, I have tried to lay it out schematically with examples so that it becomes very clear.


From: Anna Ritamäki
To: John C. Massam
Date: Monday, 15 February 1999 06:10:15
   Vi iam sendis al mi peton pri permeso publikigi esperantorilatan informon de la SEL-pagxo. Mi pensas ke mi ne sendis finan respondon, tamen la respondo estas jes. Vi povas uzi tion. Dankon pro via intereso.
   Anna Ritamäki

   Adapted from The Esperanto-English Dictionary (originally published in 1912, only 25 years after Esperanto was launched) by Edward Millidge, 1931 edition, Ernest Benn, London:
   Dr L. L. Zamenhof wrote: "I arranged a complete dismemberment of ideas into independent words, so that instead of words in various grammatical forms, the entire language consists of words only, in forms that do not change. ... in this way the dismemberment of the language is no trouble to the leaner;
   ... what he calls termination, or prefix or suffix is an altogether independent word, which always retains the same meaning, no matter whether it is used at the end or at the beginning of another word, or as a grammatical particle. ... the result ... is that everything you write in the international language will be clearly understood at once ..." * (page v)
   [* Translated from the Unua Libro de la Lingvo Esperanto, see F.K., Pgx. 248-9]
   [See it in Esperanto in the Fundamenta Krestomatio de la Lingvo Esperanto, de Do. L. L. Zamenhof, Sesa Eldono, 1909, Paris, Librairie Hachette Et Cie, pagxoj 248-49]
   Mr Millidge stated: "Seeing then that our whole language is thus made up of independent changeless words, ... it will be readily understood how important it is, before introducing any new word ... that we should be thoroughly acquainted with the capabilities of the already existing words and their combinations; otherwise, by the careless or thoughtless introduction of new words, we not only make the language much more difficult for all, especially for the tyro and the non-European, but also approximate it in character to certain of the national languages, with their heavy load of doubles and illogicalities.  ...
   "... until the student has acquired facility in the use of the fundamental words, he should be warned against the use of others, although they may appear in this or other dictionaries, and be very attractive to him nationally.  ... All other words must for the present [1912] be considered as still on probation, although many of them, needless to say, are freely used by the best writers, including Dr. Zamenhof himself." (page v)
   (To assist Esperantists, Millidge put special symbols on all the fundamental words in his dictionary.)

La iksa ("x") kodo estas la plej ofte uzata,
sed Unikodo estas solvinta la problemon

Kvankam Zamenhof penis fari Esperaton internacia, gxi estas tute euxropa -- latinida laux vorto kaj slava laux sintakso.
La literumado aux ortografio ankaux estas tre simpla: unu sono, unu litero kaj inverse [Ne! Nur preskaux! -- Johano MASAMO].  Jen estas la literoj (unu bildo el la gramatiko de Bertilo WENNERGREN):

Se vi havas Vindoza 98 aux alia hodiauxa ekipo, la 28-litero Esperanto alfabeto (ne estas Q, W, X, aux Y) elmontrigxos senerare malsupre, per Unikodo ©:

A, B, C, Ĉ, D, E, F, G, Ĝ, H, Ĥ, I, J, Ĵ,
K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, Ŝ, T, U, Ŭ, V, Z.
a, b, c, ĉ, d, e, f, g, ĝ, h, ĥ, i, j, ĵ,
k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, ŝ, t, u, ŭ, v, z.

   Esperanto uzas la latinan alfabeton, sed cxar la lingvo uzas pli ol 26 sonojn (same kiel la plimulto de lingvoj), Zamenhof devis inventi novajn literojn: la cxapelitaj literoj.  La literoj c, g, h, j, s kaj u, cxiu havas sian cxapelitan version.  Por vidi cxi tiujn komputile, vi bezonas la tiparon Latinon-3 (La turka estas la sola granda lingvo kiu bezonas Latinon-3).   Sed, cxar la plej ofte uzata tiparo, Latino-1, kaj la plej ofte uzata litera kodo, Askio, ne subtenas la cxapelitajn literojn, la cxapelita plej ofte estas skribita komputile kiel du literoj.  La cxefaj metodoj aux kodoj de askiigo:

  1. iksa: cx, gx, hx, jx, sx, ux
  2. hoka: c^, g^, h^, j^, s^, u~ (aux: ^c, ^g, ^h, ^j, ^s, ~u)
  3. apostrofa: c', g', h', j', s', u'
  4. zamenhofa: ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, u
  5. Plivastige Zamenhofa: ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, uh -- J. Massam
   La iksa kodo estas la plej ofte uzata . . . Gxi estas la plej facile tajpi, la plej facile sxangxi auxtomate al Latino-3, kaj, sub Askio, eblas ordigxi alfabete la plej precize (ecx pli precize ol Latino-3). La hoka kodo estas la plej evidenta, sed ne estas tre tajpebla kaj, laux mia gusto (tial ne necese la gusto de aliaj), la plej malbelvida kaj okulgratanta.  La apostrofa kodo aspektas la plej nature kaj estas facile tajpi, sed gxi duobligas la rolon de la apostrofo, kiu jam havas difinitan uzon en Esperanto. La zamenhofa kodo estis proponita de Zamenhof, sed estas dubasenca (ekz., flughaveno) cxar gxi duobligas la rolon de la "h". -- Kopita el "Persone en la Spegulo" de Stefano KALB cxe ~kalb/enc/e/eo.htm kaj malal "Hejmpagxo de Kalle Vilbaste" cxe ~kallev/esperanto.html

     6. Latino-3: Æ æ, Ø ø, ¦ ¶, ¬ ¼, Þ þ, Ý ý. Vidu:   This webpage seemed dead on 08 Sep 00.
     7. Unikoda: Ĉ ĉ, Ĝ ĝ, Ĥ ĥ, Ĵ ĵ, Ŝ ŝ, Ŭ ŭ. Unikodo sukcese instaliĝis per Mikrosofto "WordPad" sur ĉi tiu retpaĝo je 7 Novembro 2000. Ankaŭ vidu: ~inko/retmag/
   Alia artikolo pri la anstatauxajxoj por la specialaj supersignaj literoj donas strangajn variantojn, cxe -- -- J. Massam 01 Mar 2000

ESPERANTO Green Star emblem

SPECIAL SOUNDS NEED SPECIAL LETTERS: If your equipment permits, on some webpages you might see the special Esperanto letters displayed correctly like this

Ĉ, Ĝ, Ĥ, Ĵ, Ŝ, Ŭ,
ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ

   On many Esperanto webpages the special letters are shown in a substitute system like this

cx, gx, hx, jx, sx, ux,

and on others are shown with a separate ^, or ', or "h" for all but "ux." If you learn to pronounce the special letters properly, you then might have fun trying to work out the meanings of some of the words. If your computer equipment permitted, you would see that the first five special letters are capped with a circumflex (^), and the special "ŭ" (ux) has a downward curving diacritical mark sometimes called a "breve" above it. But until recent years the Internet has had difficulty in displaying correct Esperanto.
   Pronunciations for Anglo-Celtic speakers are: "cx" = ch as in church, "gx" = j as in jar, "hx" = kh as the last sound in Scots loch, "jx" = zh as the middle sound in azure, and "sx" = sh as in shop.  The "ux" is pronounced  "w" in some places, or a quick "oo", but mainly coalesced in diphthongs. The corresponding ordinary letters, i.e., those without the following "h" or the special accents, are pronounced as follows:   c = ts, g = g as in get, h as in hurry, j as y in yellow, s as in sing, and u as in blue.
   The diphthong "aux" is pronounced like the "ow" in "cow."
   Esperantists have had to put up with these makeshifts until the main Browser companies updated their systems, and the manufacturers have still (Nov. 2000) not provided a universal system for keyboarding the letters straight onto Webpages.
   Louis Zamenhof's own recommendation, to use an "h" after 5 of the special letters and to use a plain "u" for special "ŭ" when these letters can't be printed with the correct diacritical marks, is not as popular nowadays, and has problems. These days there are automatic translation systems on the WWW (or the TTT) that prefer the "x" or the "^" to show the special letters. Also, some people say that because "h" is a legitimate Esperanto letter with its own corresponding sound, in a sense it is not appropriate to use it to mark a missing accent mark. In addition, in compound words where the first element ends in "c" etc and the next element starts with "h", there would be a danger of mispronunciation and misunderstanding. (This problem is best avoided by inserting a hyphen, for example, "flug-haveno" = "airport", which if written as usual "flughaveno" might be mispronounced by learners as if the sound after "u" was ĝ .) And, printing a plain "u" for a special "u" does lead to incorrect spellings, mispronunciations and the risk of difficulty in understanding in a few cases. (However, inserting a following "h" avoids that problem. Adding this "h" makes the style "Amplified Zamenhofan".)
   The use of the circumflex ("^") off the keyboard results in words that look broken up, and of phrases that appear outlandish, and are difficult to read, such as "Ni s^ang^is niajn c^evalojn hierau^."  (We changed our horses yesterday.) If the ^ is put in front of the letters, there is the extra disadvantage of spoiling automatic alphabetic sorting. Compare the readability, coherence, neatness and understandability of the same sentence using the "h" in the Amplified Zamenhofan system: "Ni shanghis niajn chevalojn hierauh" (adding an "h" to show a special "u") or the "X" or "ikso" system "Ni sxangxis niajn cxevalojn hieraux." The "X" system seems to be the most popular, and in spite of opponents who say it looks outlandish (forgetting that French has words like "aux"), it looks quite neat and is nearly as easy to read as the real Ni ŝanĝis niajn ĉevalojn hieraŭ. So far (Nov. 2000), the "X" seems to be the best for e-mails if the sender want every receiver to get a readable message (even if Unicode might be able to be used in the latest equipment.) (E-mails by the special multi-language LingoMAIL ™ did not work with Apple Macintosh computers up to November 2000, so should not be used for years until most old Apples are retired.)
   Trying with Latin 3's special programmes and typeface sets to represent the special letters correctly on webpages can give VERY outlandish and difficult-looking results for people without the special downloaded typefaces. Web-surfers generally will see strange letters, a fraction, a number, and symbols -- Æ, Ø, ¦, &# 172;, Þ, Ý and æ, ø, ¶, ¼, þ, ý -- in among the ordinary letters.
   To non-speakers, our potential recruits, if either the "x" or the "h" are used the words look neat and regular. Because "x" is not in the Esperanto alphabet, it is said that the the translating machines at present (Nov. 2000) can understand quicker if "x" is used to show the special letters than if "h" is used.
   Whatever system you adopt, my plea is that it avoid anything that will make reading standard Esperanto magazines and books require more mental gymnastics than is necessary. For that reason I do not support the substitution of the "ux" with a "w," nor any of the proposed systems which entail using the letters Dr Zamenhof left out, "q," "w," "x," and "y" in various innovative ways.

OTHER PRONUNCIATIONS: The five vowels are heard in "Pa let me go too," and in "Are there three or two?"
Pronounce "ej," "aj" and "oj" to rhyme with "Hey, my boy!" -- Johano MASAMO

Psychological Aspects of the World Language Problem and of Esperanto
(from a talk presented by Claude Piron in Basel during the Trilanda Renkontigxo on March 21, 1998.)

Facts are more stubborn than words
   You see, the psychological aspects of Esperanto, and of the world language problem, are much more complex than you would have first imagined. In the psyche of most individuals lies a terrible resistance to the very idea of an international language.
   Because of this resistance, almost no one in the political, social and intellectual elite will willingly and calmly investigate the matter.  And yet it progresses.
   Similar cases of resistance to something that is an improvement, that is more suitable and more democratic occur very often throughout history.
   The most typical example is the resistance in Europe to the numerals which we now use, the Indian/Arabic numerals: the intellectual elite (and not only they) felt these numerals to be a sacrilege against the Roman numerals which had been in use.
   I am convinced that Esperanto will someday be generally accepted.  The pathology will not always be more powerful than the healthy forces which are also active in society. Among these healthy forces is the greater and greater understanding of the phenomenon of Esperanto on the part of linguists and of many other people.
   There are also the demands of reality.  As Lincoln said, "You can fool all of the people some of the time, and some of the people all of the time, but you can not fool all of the people all of the time."
   If you compare Esperanto with other means of communicating between peoples, you find it to be objectively the best method by far according to all the criteria.
   Facts are more stubborn than ideas.  The resistance will go on and it will be intense, certainly, even if only because you can perceive something only when you are ready to.
   Because of this, nowadays, many people simply will not hear what you are saying about Esperanto: their minds are not ready and so your phrases pass them and do not reach them.
   Yes, the resistance will continue to be powerful.  But, believe me, it cannot win out. The facts will win out.
   The truth will win out.  Esperanto will win out. – This is the last section from Psychological Aspects of the World Language Problem and of Esperanto,  by Claude Piron, translated from the Esperanto by Sylvan Zaft. It was at:
   [Might I add the example of the English-speaking world's long resistance to adopting the metric system of weights and measures, invented in the very early 1800s.  Australia metricated over a period in the 1960s, Britain is metricating, but the United States has still made no meaningful strides towards metricating. -- Johano MASAMO, 1999]


Australia flag; Aust. Nat. Flag Assn.  England flag; Mooney's Miniflags  Joined UK and US flags; source unknown  English: Translations: We suggest that you copy the URL, then click (press)   then click (press) "Translation" and paste the URL into the central panel or window, to obtain translations of about 2 A4 pages in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, or Russian.
   Click (press) for one word at a time from Esperanto to English or English to Esperanto, or click (press) to translate phrases out of Esperanto into English.

ESPERANTO Emblem 43x40 Esperanto: Tradukoj: Ni sugestas ke vi kopiu la URL, tiam klaketu (premu)   kaj klaketu (premu) "Translation" kaj gluu la URL en la centran panelon aux fenestron, akiri tradukoj de proximuma da du A4 pagxoj en angla, franca, germana, itala, portugala, hispana, aux rusa.
   Klaketu (premu) por unuope vorto el esperanta al angla, aux el angla en esperantan, aux klaketu (premu) traduki frazerojn el esperanta al angla.

   An excellent page displaying the Esperanto alphabet and displaying bookcovers is at
   Esperanto lessons are at:
   If you need more information about Esperanto: Western Australians e-mail to John Massam, North Americans e-mail to:
   Don Harlow has an "Esperanto Access" linkpage at:
   A political Esperanto Webpage is at:  A link to another political page is at
   Aspects of governments' attitudes to Esperanto, and some history of publications and radio broadcasts, may be found at:
   Esperanto is good training for schoolchildren who intend to study other languages, according to school trials supervised and assisted by Monash University in 1997.  See

SCIENCE FICTION:   Q. In the British science fiction television series and books Red Dwarf,  what does "LEVEL NIVELO" mean?
   A: Red Dwarf is a bilingual ship, with English and Esperanto as the two official languages.  "Nivelo" is the Esperanto word for "level".  The signs in the corridors of the ship simply indicate (in both languages) what level you're on.
   Esperanto is a real language, developed in the 1880s by Polish ophthalmologist [eye specialist] L.L. Zamenhof.  The episode "Kryten" establishes that Lister, Holly, and Kryten all speak at least some Esperanto.  Rimmer doesn't seem to have mastered the language yet; he's shown trying to learn it from a videotape without much success. -- Adapted from the Red Dwarf Frequently Asked Questions List (FAQ) which was at but did not respond on 23 Jan 2000.

Johano MASAMO, Auxstralio; Telefono: +61 ( 0 ) 8  9343 9532, Movebla Telefono: 0408 054 319; E-posxto:; Hejmpagxo:
Tagged on AOLpress/2.0 ™ and sent to WWW 24 Jan 1999, (originally 32 kb). Changed back to "x" style, and the Esperanto accented letters successfully displayed by using Unicode© codes and Microsoft® WordPad© wordprocessor on 07 Nov 2000. (37 kb) Last modified on 22* Oct 2013
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With AltaVista ® one may translate up to two A4 pages of Webpages using English, Français, Deutsch, Italiano, Português, Español, or Россия (Rossija). For more than a dozen languages including Esperanto and Latin, one word at a time, try Also see For more Esperanto try the Richardson Vortaro.
John Massam, 46 Cobine Way, Greenwood, WA, 6024, Australia. Tel.: +61 ( 0 ) 8  9343 9532, Mobile Cellphone 0408 054 319;
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