• 621 BC (?) onwards and AD 610-632; Texts used to back the call to SUBMIT TO SELF-APPOINTED LEADERSHIP. NEAR EAST: To support some of the actions of warriors taking land, possessions, power, and life itself from other people, and to obtain the subservience of their followers, some leaders use ancient messages said to have been handed down from Heaven. In two such groups under study here (the Judaists and the Muslims), the themes are similar: Other groups are to be cleared out of some lands, and/or kept in subjection, spread fear and dread, utterly destroy, execute by cruel and unusual methods, kill even the little children, exterminate, strike down, enslave, fell trees, domination, do not show pity, eye for eye and tooth for tooth, and seek revenge.
   Many of the followers in these groups, and even people outside them, do not fully appreciate the actual meaning of the formulae they recite in regular ceremonies, or the readings they hear from their leaders or learn off by heart. It can be recommended that people THINK more about what the words mean to the victims of some of these supposed exploits and "divine" commands. (More entries, and different translations or viewpoints are always welcome.)
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Once the seeds are sown, see History unfold.
• A.D. 600s onwards:
Muslim conquests, Judaists convert Khazar / Chazar empire, Eastern Orthodox Christians convert Viking-led Slav kingdoms called Rus, who slowly destroy the Jewish Khazar buffer state, and are later conquered by Mongols, and Muslims hammer Christian Constantinople / Byzantium until it is conquered. 
   In the 600s Muslim armies started attacking their neighbours in Arabia, conquering the Hejaz by 632, then began stealing the rest of Arabia, then the Persian empire and nearby Christian countries, forcing "conversion" and forced multi-woman marriages on the inhabitants.  These peoples are among the forefathers of many millions of "Arabs" in countries far from Arabia to this day.  Note that the new "religion" attacked Orthodox Christian Constantinople / Byzantium / Eastern Roman Empire 673-8, and 717-8, as well as later.
   Judaist rabbis from Babylon, possibly in the 600s, converted the rulers of Khazaria /Chazaria (north of the Black Sea), a Turkic-speaking empire, which had to fight to retain independence.  The Khazars are reputedly the forefathers of millions of people whose mother tongue is or was a Turkic language, and later Yiddish (not Hebrew), identifying as Jews throughout the Middle Ages and into the future.
   The Varangian (Viking / Norsemen) rulers of Slav states (the Rus) were converted to Orthodox Christianity by clergy from the old Eastern Roman Empire (Constantinople, or Byzantium) and Christianised Bulgaria, retaining many warrior ways.  This is why most Russians and their satellite peoples are members of various Orthodox Churches (which have a married clergy for parishes, plus celibates in monasteries, and unmarried bishops).
   The Pecheneg people were a buffer state between the Rus and the Khazars.  Similarly, as history unfolded, the Judaised Khazars were a buffer state that held back various attacks and attempted conquests for ages.  Like many other nations and empires, the Khazars charged people for transporting goods through their lands.  Most of the trade was by river, and the "customs duty" was 10 per cent.  Perhaps because of this, and in spite of the Khazars being a warrior buffer empire, various Orthodox Christian Russians at times attacked Khazaria, one group making the Khazar city Kiev (in the Ukraine) their capital, forced them back eastwards to between the Don and Volga Rivers, and then seized one of the last of their fortress cities.  The Rus had thus removed an important buffer against various raiders and conquests.
   What was left of the Khazars tried to resist when the Mongol hordes (called Tatars) came.  Sadly, the result of the Khazar "tax" helping to lead the Rus to attack them had ended in the removal of the Khazars as an effective fighting empire.  They had become a persecuted subject people under the labels "Jews" and "Christ-killers," doubtful as the latter was in spite of some Jewish literature such as the Babylonian Talmud boasting of this.  (Many Khazar "Jews" gradually migrated westwards into Poland, Germany, and later to the Americas etc.)  The Mongols, once they had mastered the Rus (later called Russians), made them pay tribute for centuries.
   The Western Christians (Roman Catholics), supposedly on a Crusade to restore the freedom to go as pilgrims to Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, etc., and to restore the Near East and Middle East to Christianity, turned on their "schismatic" or "heretic" hosts, the Christian Greek-speaking "Roman" Empire based at Constantinople (Byzantium), and sacked the city in 1203/1204.  The Persians had also ruined many of the Orthodox Byzantine cities.  In its weakened state, as the years rolled on, the Orthodox Christians lost most of their lands to Westerners, Christianised Serbians and other peoples, and to the Islamicised Turks.
   On Tuesday, May 29, 1453, Constantinople / Byzantium itself fell to Turkic Muslims, the capital being renamed Istanbul, and the area, part of which the Turks knew as "Rom" or "Rum", and Western historians knew as "Asia Minor," being renamed "Turkey".  Many Christians and others were to die in the ensuing conquests and attacks.  Some of the hate goes on to this day.  Stupidity and evil engender grief!
   [MAP: The map is from p 549 of Ancient History – from the first civilisations to the Renaissance, J.M.Roberts, 2004, Castle Hill (NSW), Lifetime Distributors; ISBN-10: 1-84483-212-0  (First published as The New Penguin History of the World, Penguin Press/Allen Lane, 2002.)  See also map on page 613. For conversion of Khazars read pp 540 and 584.  Or read The Thirteenth Tribe, by Arthur Koestler. ENDS.]

• 635, Damascus (Orthodox Christian, in Asia) falls to Islamic forces. SYRIA.
• 638, February. Muslim armies take Jerusalem (Orthodox Christian, in Asia). JUDEA, Palestine.
• 643, Alexandria falls. EGYPT (Orthodox Christian, in Africa): The fall of Alexandria in 643 sounded the death knell of more than a thousand years of Hellenic civilization that once enriched the whole of the Near East with its scholarship and culture.
• 648-9, The island of Cyprus is seized from Christians. (Offshore from SYRIA and ASIA MINOR.)
• 653, Rhodes is taken from Christians. (Offshore from ANATOLIA in ASIA MINOR.
• 673 onwards, Constantinople (Orthodox Christian, Europe) is attacked for five years by Muslims.  (Present name is Istanbul) Byzantium, east of GREECE.
• By 698 the whole of North Africa is conquered, now Muslim, not Christian.
• 711, Muslims from Tangiers pour across the 13 km-wide strait of Gibraltar into SPAIN (Western Christian, in Europe).
• 717, Muslims return to the attack against the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium, Orthodox Christian, in Europe and Asia).
• By 721 the Arab-Berber horde from Africa has overthrown the ruling Catholic Visigoths of SPAIN (Europe) and, with the fall of Saragossa, set their sights on southern France.
• By 720 Narbonne has fallen. FRANCE (Western Christian, Europe).
• 732, early spring, Bordeaux is stormed and its churches burnt down by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Abdullah al-Ghafiqi. FRANCE.
• 732, October, Charles Martel and his Frankish army defeated the army of 'Abd al-Rahman and killed him on the road from Poitiers to Tours. A turning-point in history. FRANCE.
• 734, Avignon is captured by an Arab force. FRANCE.
• 734, Lyons is sacked. FRANCE.
• 759, the Arabs are driven out of Narbonne. FRANCE.
• 838, Marseilles is plundered by Arabs. FRANCE.
• Early 800s Muslim incursions into Italy. The islands of Ponza (off Gaeta) and Ischia (off Naples) are plundered. ITALY (Europe).
• 813, Civitavecchia, the port of Rome, is sacked by the Arabs. ITALY.
• 826, the island of Crete falls to Muslim forces, which retained it as their base until 961. (Offshore from GREECE and ASIA MINOR.)
• Around 827 they then begin nibbling at the island of Sicily. (Offshore from ITALY and TUNISIA.)
• 837, Naples beats off a Muslim attack. ITALY.
• By 842 Arabs capture Messina and control the Strait of Messina. SICILY, offshore from ITALY.
• In 836 the rulers of Naples knavishly invite the Muslim forces to help them against the Lombards, and so set the stage for more than a century of Muslims raids around the coasts of ITALY.
• 840, Bari falls to Khalfun, a Berber chieftain, by another act of treachery. ITALY.
• 846, Raid on St Peter's, Rome.  ITALY: In 846 some Muslim Arabs arrive in a fleet at the mouth of the Tiber, make their way to Rome, sack the city, and carry away from the basilica of St. Peter all of the gold and silver it contains. – Annals Australasia, annalsaust ralasia § nareg com au , by Sandro MAGISTER, pp 6-7, January-February 2006. [846]
• 846, Taranto in Apulia is conquered by Arab forces, who hold it until 880. ITALY.
• 849, a Saracen fleet again appears at the mouth of the Tiber, but is beaten off by the combined forces of four states, and destroyed in a storm. ITALY.
• 852, Leonine Wall around the Vatican, Rome, finished, blessed by Pope Leo IV. ITALY.
• From 853-871 the notorious Muslim brigand al-Mufarraj bin Sallam, and his successor, Sawdan, control all the coast from Bari down to Reggio Calabria, and terrorize Southern ITALY.
• 859, Arabs finally take the rest of Sicily. (Offshore from ITALY.)
• 870, Island of Malta captured by the Muslims. (Offshore from SICILY.)
• In 871 Bari, the Saracens' capital on mainland Italy, is recaptured from the Muslims by Emperor Louis II. ITALY.
• 872, Louis II defeats a Saracen fleet off Capua. ITALY.
• 873, Muslim forces devastate Calabria in southern ITALY.
• 878, Syracuse, a Byzantine city (Orthodox Christian), falls to the Muslims after a nine-month siege.
• 879, upon the Emperor's death, the Duke of Spoleto turned on the Pope.  John VIII, unable to cope with both Saracens and Spoleto at once, had to pay tribute of 25,000 mancuses annually to the Arabs. A silver mancus was worth roughly AUD$25. This situation lasted for two years. ITALY.
• 880, victory over Saracen forces at Naples by Byzantine (Orthodox Christian) Commanders. ITALY.
• In 881 the Muslim allies of the Neapolitans ("Christians") capture the fortress on the Garigliano (the ancient Liris) 14 km east of Gaeta close to Anzio, just north of Naples, and plunder the surrounding countryside with impunity for forty years. ITALY.
• 887, Muslim armies take Hysela in Carsiana, and Amasia, the metropolitan city of Pontus in Asia Minor. BYZANTINE CITIES (Orthodox Christian, Asia).
• 889, Muslims capture Fraxineto or Fréjus, not far from Toulon, which becomes their most important base to ravage Provence and North Italy, from their bases in the Alps. FRANCE, ITALY (Western Christians).
• 902, Muslim fleets destroy Demetrias in Thessaly, Central GREECE. (Orthodox Christian)
• 904, Thessalonica, the second city of the Byzantine Empire, falls to Islam. GREECE.
• In 921 a large band of Englishmen (Western Christians) on pilgrimage to the tombs of the Apostles in Rome, are crushed to death under rocks rolled down on them by Saracens in the passes of the Alps. EUROPE.
• In 934 Ya‘kub bin Ishaq attacks Genoa, and takes it in 935. ITALY.
• 942, Muslims removed temporarily from Fraxineto by Hugh of Aries attacking by land while a Byzantine fleet harries them from the sea. FRANCE.
• 972 - almost one hundred years after capturing Fraxineto, Muslims are driven from this lair by a league of Italian and Provencal princes (Western Christians) led by Duke William of Provence. FRANCE.
• 976, the Fatimid Caliphs (Muslims) send fresh Muslim expeditions into southern Italy (Christian).  Initially the German emperor Otho II, with his headquarters in Rome, successfully defeats these Saracen forces. ITALY.
• In 977 Sergius, Archbishop of Damascus, is expelled by the Muslims. SYRIA.
• In July 982 Otho II is ambushed and his army is almost cut to pieces. ITALY.

• 1001 +. Successive Muslim invasions of northern India begin. INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT. Hindus, Bhuddists, and Christians in the northern part of India began to face severe difficulties as successive bloody Muslim invasions occurred from 1001 onwards.  Gradually more and more territory was conquered.  When Marco Polo visited central India around the end of the thirteenth century, he reported not only three Christian kingdoms, but also three "Saracen" kingdoms. – see Patrick SOOKHDEO, 2002, A people betrayed; The impact of Islamization on the Christian community in Pakistan, Christian Focus Publications (Fearn) and Isaac Publishing (Pewsey), p 42. [1001 +]
• 1003, Muslims from Spain sack Antibes.
• 1005, Muslims from Spain sack Pisa. ITALY.
• 1016, Muslims from Spain again sack Pisa. ITALY.
• 1008, Palm Sunday celebrations outlawed.  EGYPT, SYRIA: In 1008 a Muslim ruler, the Fatimid caliph Hakim bin-Amr Allah, outlawed the celebrations of Palm Sunday by Christians of Egypt and Syria (which might have included Palestine). [1008]
• 1009, Christians' property confiscated, Jesus Sepulchre church and others utterly destroyed. PALESTINE, EGYPT: In 1009 caliph Hakim bin-Amr Allah (Muslim) ordered that Christians be punished and all their property confiscated.  In that same year, he sacked and demolished the church dedicated to Mary in Cairo, and did not prevent the desecration of the Christian sepulchres surrounding it, or the sacking of the city's other churches.  That same year saw what was certainly the most severe episode: the destruction of the Constantinian basilica of the Resurrection in Jerusalem, known as the Holy Sepulchre. – Lecture by Monsignor Walter Brandmüller (Roman Catholic), December 2005, reported in Annals Australasia, "Christianity and Islam in History," By Walter BRANDMÜLLER, p 7, March 2006.  [1009]
• By 1010 Arab Muslims have seized Cosenza in southern Italy (Christian, possibly both Western and Orthodox). ITALY.
• 1015, Island of SARDINIA falls to Arab Muslims. (Between Italy and Spain, south of CORSICA, north of TUNISIA and ALGERIA.)
• 1017, Combined Christian fleet finds Mujahid (Muslim) in the act of crucifying Christians on Sardinia, and drives him away. SARDINIA.
• 1020, Muslims from Spain sack Narbonne. FRANCE.
• Until 1050 Mujahid keeps trying to re-take Sardinia, but then he is captured by the Pisans, and the island is made over to them by the Pope. SARDINIA.
• A.D. 1071, Turk Muslims destroy Christian Orthodox Empire army, become a threat to Europe. MANZIKERT: On August 19, 1071 the Turkish forces defeated the Roman Emperor in the East, Romanus Diogenes, at the Battle of Manzikert (or Manazgerd).  The Seljuk Turks conquered most of Asia Minor (marked Turkey in modern maps).  The Greek-culture Orthodox Christian Roman Empire in the east, named Byzantium by historians, was crippled.  The loss led to years of pillage, killing and wholesale destruction of civilised life in Anatolia and other areas.
   "Manzikert, the shock that launched the Crusade, would have destroyed us – but for the Crusade.  Constantinople [Byzantium] would have fallen; all Europe would have been involved – but under that stimulus the West moved.  Gaul and the Rhine, Normandy, Flanders, Aquitaine, Lorraine armed, faced east, and went forward.  The issue was the life or death of Christendom."
   – Adapted from Hilaire BELLOC, The Crusades, (originally 1937) 1992, Tan Books & Publishers, Rockford (Illinois), p 17 [A.D. 1071]
• 1075, Seljuk Turks conquer Syria and Palestine, interfere with pilgrimages. PALESTINE: After the 1075 conquest, they began interfering with the Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Places in Palestine. – based on Frances M. Clapham and Kay Franklin (eds), Factbook of History, (orig 1977) 1990, Rainbow Books, London, p 71. [1075]
• The Real History of the Crusades. NEAR EAST: For starters, the Crusades to the East were in every way defensive wars. They were a direct response to Muslim aggression – an attempt to turn back or defend against Muslim conquests of Christian lands.
   Christians in the eleventh century were not paranoid fanatics. Muslims really were gunning for them. While Muslims can be peaceful, Islam was born in war and grew the same way. From the time of Mohammed, the means of Muslim expansion was always the sword.
   Muslim thought divides the world into two spheres, the Abode of Islam and the Abode of War. Christianity – and for that matter any other non-Muslim religion – has no abode. Christians and Jews can be tolerated within a Muslim state under Muslim rule. But, in traditional Islam, Christian and Jewish states must be destroyed and their lands conquered.
   – Crisis, "The Real History of the Crusades," www.crisis magazine. com/april 2002/cover.htm , By Thomas F. MADDEN, Apr 1, 2002
   (Thomas F. Madden is associate professor and chair of the Department of History at Saint Louis University. He is the author of numerous works, including A Concise History of the Crusades, and co-author, with Donald Queller, of The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople.)
[COMMENT: The Crusaders' sneak attack and sacking of Constantinople (Byzantium) in 1204 which gave Venice the territory for a time was completely unjustified, and has poisoned relations between the oldest "trunk" and the offshoot branches of Christianity. COMMENT ENDS]  Article date: Apr 1, 2002)
• 1099, Crusaders slaughter Jerusalem population. JERUSALEM: The Muslims occupying Jerusalem had insulted the cross on the walls, while the Crusaders besieged the city. When the Crusaders conquered the city they slaughtered almost the entire population, spending about 1½ days doing so, from Friday 15 July 1099 to the 16th. – see Hilaire Belloc, The Crusades, (originally 1937) 1992, p 115 [COMMENT: Perhaps the Christians forgot "You shall not kill," and "Never repay one wrong with another." (1 Peter 3:9) COMMENT ENDS] [1099]
• 1100, Western half-Christianised Crusaders break promise made to Christian Emperor. JERUSALEM: The crowning of Baldwin of Bouillon on Christmas Day, 1100, as King of Jerusalem was brought about to give much-needed unity to the Western European Crusaders. However, the title of king connoted independence of the Emperor of Constantinople, "although the Crusaders at the outset of their march had promised to recognise the suzerainty of the Emperor over anything they might conquer." – Hilaire Belloc, The Crusades, (originally 1937) 1992, p 123.  [1100]
• 1143, Koran was translated into Latin, thus opening it up directly to literate Westerners, and indirectly to learned members of the Orthodox and other Eastern Churches.
   [COMMENT: Leaders of Christian Churches, scholars, and rulers of Christian and other nations, therefore, have no real excuse for leaving their followers ignorant of the fact that the Koran / Quran, supposedly the word of a god called Allah, includes several condemnations of Christianity and Judaism, and several calls to kill and/or capture them and other non-Muslims – plus "hypocrite" Muslims.  Some of the attacks on Christianity are attacks on the idea that God had a son, and the Blessed Trinity, plus a claim that the Christian clergy devour and hoard money.  The attacks on the Jews include the strange doctrines that God had changed some of them into apes and swine (i.e., monkeys and pigs), they are "apes, despised and rejected", and the highly unlikely order forbidding them to sell the revelations for a paltry sum. ENDS.]
   [AFTERNOTE: Allegedly the first accurate translation of the Koran into a European language was in 1698 AD, according to page 59 of David Bryce-Jones, The Closed Circle, 1989 and 1991. ENDS.] [A.D. 1143]

• 1154, Dec 1; Bishop of Rome responds to theft of Edessa (Rohais).   

Eugene III: Summons to A Crusade, Dec 1, 1154.

   Internet Medieval Source Book, , December 1, 1154
   Back to Medieval Source Book | ORB Main Page | Links to Other Medieval Sites | Medieval Sourcebook
   In 1146, the Crusade principality of Edessa fell to the resurgent Muslims. As a result, Pope Eugene III called for a new crusade - the Second. He was enthusiastically supported in this call by his mentor, St. Bernard of Clairvaux.
   Bishop Eugene, servant of the servants of God, to his most beloved son in Christ, Louis, the illustrious king of the French, and to his beloved sons, the princes, and to all the faithful ones of God who are established throughout Gaul,- greeting and apostolic benediction.
   How much our predecessors the Roman pontiffs did labour for the deliverance of the oriental church, we have learned from the accounts of the ancients and have found it written in their acts. For our predecessor of blessed memory, pope Urban, did sound, as it were, a celestial trump and did take care to arouse for its deliverance the sons of the holy Roman church from the different parts of the earth. At his voice, indeed, those beyond the mountain and especially the bravest and strongest warriors of the French kingdom, and also those of Italy, inflamed by the ardour of love did come together, and, congregating a very great army, not without much shedding of their own blood, the divine aid being with them, did free from the filth of the pagans that city where our Saviour willed to suffer for us, and where He left His glorious sepulchre to us as a memorial of His passion, -and many others which, avoiding prolixity, we refrain from mentioning.
   Which, by the grace of God, and the zeal of your fathers, who at intervals of time have striven to the extent of their power to defend them and to spread the name of Christ in those parts, have been retained by the Christians up to this day; and other cities of the infidels have by them been manfully stormed. But now, our sins and those of the people themselves requiring it, a thing which we can not relate without great grief and wailing, the city of Edessa which in our tongue is called Rohais,-which also, as is said, once when the whole land in the east was held by the pagans, alone by herself served God under the power of the Christians-has been taken and many, of the castles of the Christians occupied by them (the pagans). The archbishop, moreover, of this same city, together with his clergy and many other Christians, have there been slain, and the relics of the saints have been given over to the trampling under foot of the infidels, and dispersed. Whereby how great a danger threatens the church of God and the whole of Christianity, we both know ourselves and do not believe it to be hid from your prudence. For it is known that it will be the greatest proof of nobility and probity, if those things which the bravery of your fathers acquired be bravely defended by you the sons. But if it should happen otherwise, which God forbid, the valour of the fathers will be found to have diminished in the case the of the sons.
   We exhort therefore all of you in God, we ask and command, and, for the remission of sins enjoin: that those who are of God, and, above all, the greater men and the nobles do manfully gird themselves; and that you strive so to oppose the multitude of the infidels, who rejoice at the time in a victory gained over us, and so to defend the oriental church -freed from their tyranny by so great an outpouring of the blood of your fathers, as we have said, - and to snatch many thousands of your captive brothers from their hands,- that the dignity of the Christian name may be increased in your time, and that your valour which is praised throughout the whole world, may remain intact and unshaken. May that good Matthias be an example to you, who, to preserve the laws of his fathers, did not in the least doubt to expose himself with his sons and relations to death, and to leave whatever he possessed in the world; and who at length, by the help of the divine aid, after many labours however, did, as well as his progeny, manfully triumph over his enemies.
   We, moreover, providing with paternal solicitude for your tranquillity and for the destitution of that same church, do grant and confirm by the authority conceded to us of God, to those who by the promptings of devotion do decide to undertake and to carry through so holy and so necessary a work and labour, that remission of sins which our aforesaid predecessor pope Urban did institute; and do decree that their wives and sons, their goods also and possessions shall remain under the protection of our selves and of the archbishops, bishops and other prelates of the church of God. By the apostolic authority, moreover, we forbid that, in the case of any thing, which they possessed in peace, when they took the cross, any suit be brought hereafter until most certain news has been obtained concerning their return or their death. Moreover since those who war for the Lord should by no means prepare themselves with precious garments, nor with provision for their personal appearance, nor with dogs or hawks, other things which portend licentiousness: we exhort your prudence in the Lord that those who have decided to undertake so holy a work shall not strive after these things, but shall show zeal and diligence with all their strength in the matter of arms, horses and other things with which they may fight the infidels. But those who are oppressed by debt and begin so holy a journey with a pure heart, shall not pay interest for the time past, and if they or … others for them are bound by an oath or pledge in the matter of interest, we absolve them by apostolic authority. It is allowed to them also when their relations, being warned, or the lords to whose fee they belong, are either unwilling or unable to advance them the money, to freely pledge without any reclamation, their lands or other possessions to churches, or ecclesiastical persons, or to any other of the faithful. According to the institution of our aforesaid predecessor, by the authority of almighty God and by that of St. Peter the chief of the apostles, conceded to us by God, we grant such remission and absolution of sins, that he who shall devoutly begin so sacred a journey and shall accomplish it, or shall die during it, shall obtain absolution for all his sins which with a humble and contrite heart he shall confess, and shall receive the fruit of eternal retribution from the Remunerator of all.
   Given at Vetralle on the Calends of December.
   from Doeberl, Monumenta Germania Selecta, Vol 4, p. 40, trans in Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), pp. 333-336
   This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.
   Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.
   © Paul Halsall Mar 1996, halsall § murray fordham edu

   [ANOTHER REFERENCE: The above document is quoted (in part) in The Papal Encyclicals in their Historical Context, Anne Fremantle (ed), 1956, Mentor Books, New York, p 67, as stated in http://www. au/~johnm/ religion/ religchron.htm . ENDS.]
[Dec 1, 1154]

• 1204, Papist "Christians" sack Christian Constantinople. CONSTANTINOPLE, ASIA MINOR: Catholic Crusaders by trickery attack and sack Orthodox Christian Constantinople, also known to historians as Byzantium, and now called Istanbul, in Asia Minor (now called Turkey), then the capital of the Eastern continuation of the Roman Empire.  Other so-called "Christians" stole provinces off the Empire.  [The year of the sacking of the city is shown as 1203 in at least one reference book.]  Just as in modern wars, the stated aim (in this case, regaining Christian lands from those who stole it, thus freeing the Holy Land and other stolen countries from the Muslims) is not the same as some of the secret real aims (booty, bedmates, and making the farmers and others pay them rent and/or tribute and taxes perpetually).]  [1204]
• 1290, August 31: Judaists exiled from England by proclamation of King Edward I, nicknamed "Longshanks" (1239-1307) [1290, Aug 31]
• 1453 Tuesday, May 29. Constantinople / Byzantium itself fell to the Ottoman Turkish Muslims' attacks and final seige.  Link: http://­­Fall_of_Constantinople . [1453]
• 1571, Oct. 7, The battle of Lepanto: The combined Catholic fleets of Spain, Venice, Genoa, Malta and the Papal States of Pius V, under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the entire maritime force of Muslim Ottoman Turkey, freed more than 10,000 Christian galley-slaves, and destroyed the myth of Ottoman naval invincibility.  Lepanto put an end to Turkish dominance in the Mediterranean, and to the threat that the Muslim Ottomans posed to Europe.  Catholics instituted the feast of "Our Lady Help of Christians," attributing the victory to prayers to God through Mary. – Walter BRANDMÜLLER, "Christianity and Islam in History," see Annals Australasia, annals australasia@ , p 7, March 2006.  [1571, Oct. 7]
• 1600s and 1700s: EUROPE and NORTH AFRICA; The Corsairs of the Barbary Coast:  One little known aspect of the Muslim slave trade is that in the 17th and 18th centuries one million European Christians were brought to Muslim North Africa.  Some were captured at sea by Barbary corsair pirates - who seized 466 British trading vessels alone between 1609 and 1616 - while others were taken as prisoners in daring Muslim raids on the coasts of Iceland, Norway, Britain, Ireland, France, Spain, Italy and Greece. – Paul KILDARE, "The Slave Trade", The Word, www.the (RC magazine, Ireland), p 12, March, 2007 [1600s & 1700s]
• 1631, June 20: 107 Irish people enslaved by Muslims.   IRELAND and ALGIERS: The most dramatic Muslim raid in Ireland was that on Baltimore, West Cork, on 20 June 1631, when 231 Barbary coast pirates and Turkish Ottoman troops kidnapped 107 local people - 23 men, 34 women and 50 children - and brought them as slaves to Algiers. Father Pierre Dan, a French priest in the city, reported seeing them being sold as slaves there: "It was a pitiful sight to see them exposed naked in the slave market." This dramatic raid was recalled in Thomas Davis' poem, The Sack of Baltimore, and more recently in Des Ekin's book, The Stolen Village. – KILDARE, ibid, p 12, March, 2007 [1631]
• 1698, First accurate (?) translation of the Koran into a European language: PADUA, Italy. A monk in Padua, Lodovico Marracci, in 1698 published the first accurate translation of the Koran into a European language.  (This is the statement of author David Bryce-Jones in The Closed Circle, 1989 and 1991, page 59.)  It had been translated into Latin, which also is a European language, in 1143, but the Webmaster has no information as to whether this was a good translation. - jcm 23 Oct 2011. [1698]
• 1716, Pirate-slavers at sea. OCEAN, MOROCCO, CORNWALL:  Thomas Fellow, a young Cornish sailor, and 51 others were captured from their ship at sea in 1716 and sold as slaves in Morocco.  One of the few who survived to tell his tale, he escaped 23 years later, when he was rescued and brought home by a Capt Toolin from Dublin on his small sailing vessel.  Fellow's extraordinary story was recently told by Giles Milton in his book, White Gold. – KILDARE, Ibid, p 12, March, 2007 [1716]
• 1784, Mysore forcibly circumcised 30,000 Christians. INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT: [During] A.D. 1784 Tippu Sultan, the Muhammaden ruler of Mysore, India, forcibly circumcised thirty thousand Christians (some writers say fifty thousand) and removed them, and presumably their families with them, to the country above the Western Ghats.  He harassed the Christians in their hiding places and compelled them, under pain of having their ears and nose cut off, to abjure their religion and embrace Islam. – Patrick SOOKHDEO, 2002, A people betrayed; The impact of Islamization on the Christian community in Pakistan, Christian Focus Publications (Fearn) and Isaac Publishing (Pewsey), pp 42-43. [1784]
• 1899: Winston CHURCHILL'S book The River War claimed that Islam raised fearless warriors as it spread into Africa, but is a retrograde force, marked by improvident habits, slovenly systems of agriculture, sluggish methods of commerce, and insecurity of property. [1899]
   20th century
• 1905, a supposed end to black slaving by Muslim powers: ASIA MINOR, BALKANS, other MUSLIM COUNTRIES: Muslim states were also slave societies. The Ottoman Empire's use of galley-slaves in the Mediterranean was one of the most brutal forms of slavery ever. Other Muslim countries imported millions of black slaves from Africa up to 1905. – Paul KILDARE, "The Slave Trade", The Word, www.the , p 12, March, 2007 [1905]
• 1911: PALESTINE: 150 high-profile Arabs in the Palestine area (then under the Turkish empire) telegraphed the Ottoman Turkish Parliament to protest against continued sales of land to Jews. Yes, Muslim Turks were selling so-called "Muslim" land to Jews. (See Irshad MANJI, 2003, The Trouble with Islam, Random House Australia, Milsons Point, page 102.) [1911]
• 1921:  J.J shows true colours.     

J.J shows true colours

   The West Australian, <>, "Inside Cover" with Gary Adshead, <inside cover§wanews com au>, <>, p 2, Monday, September 12, 2011
   Also of historic value to WA is a man called J. J. Simons who died in 1948.  The businessman, politician and newspaper owner arrived here in about 1896 and left his mark so well that Subiaco Oval's three-tier stand, which opened in 1969, was named after him.
   During some research into Mr Simons' life, a colleague turned up – how do we put this – very revealing newspaper articles featuring the views of the 193cm tall gentleman before he became a Labor MP in 1921.
   One came under the heading, The Asiatic Problem.
   "I consider it should be compulsory for every restaurateur and hotelkeeper who employs a coffee-coloured coon to post in a conspicuous position, in letters a foot deep, the following notice," Mr Simons said. "WE EMPLOY ASIATICS HERE.  In this way every true Australian would have an opportunity of expressing his repugnance to the practice by carrying his custom elsewhere."
   Believe it, or not, there was worse than that in the article, which described Mr Simons as a "fine Australian patriot" with "emphatic views on the Asiatic question".
   The founder of the Young Australian League and secretary of the WA National Football League from 1905 to 1914, Mr Simons was described in one biography as "strong-willed". The word racist also comes to mind. #

   [COMMENT: His was a majority view in his time.  He was a part owner of the rival newspaper, the Sunday times.  Often in newspaper and other writings he was referred to as J.J. "Boss" Simons.  Under his leadership, the Young Australian League devised and built the Hills retreat called Araluen.  COMMENT ENDS.]
   [MEASUREMENT: The phrase "in letters a foot deep" refers to a measurement of length in the then-current imperial system.  A foot was slightly less than 30·5 centimetres. ENDS.]
[Sep 12, 2011 newspaper report; Original statement said to be in 1921]

• 1921: PALESTINE: Haj Amin el-Husseini became the Mufti (Muslim leader) of Jerusalem, Palestine then being under British mandate, in 1921. He was properly elected president of the Supreme Muslim Council in 1922 – but ballots would never be cast again during his 15-year presidency. He was determined to rid Palestine of the Jews. Any Muslim who was lukewarm to this aim might be visited by a body of gunmen. (MANJI, 2003, Ibid, pp 103-104, quoting the 1937 Peel Commission Report.)  [1921]
• 1934: KORAN TRANSLATION: The Holy Qur’an, translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, was first brought out.  (Source: Goodword Books (New Delhi), revision of 1998, first Goodword print 2001, reprint of 2002, page VII).  To see review of the 2002 reprint, visit <>
• 1939: PALESTINE: The British Government offered the Arab Muslims full statehood, with Arabs and Jews occupying a single polity, with the Palestinians taking control in 10 years.  The Arab negotiators demanded full authority in five years. (MANJI, p 104) [1939]
• 1939 onwards: PALESTINE: The Mufti pressured Britain to turn away shiploads of Jews fleeing from Nazi attacks and threats, some drowning in the Mediterranean and others being taken back to Hitler's territories, there to be gassed etc. (MANJI, p 105) [1939 onwards]
• 1939 onwards: Terrorist gangs formed by the Jewish immigrants: PALESTINE: "Only in 1939 did the British Government appear to realize that continued Jewish immigration into Palestine caused serious prejudice to the rights and position of the Palestine Arabs which it was its duty under the mandate to safeguard. Consequently it issued the White Paper previously mentioned, in which it declared its intention to limit Jewish immigration to 75,000 persons over the next five years and to grant to Palestine its independence after ten years.
   After the period of five years no further Jewish immigration would be allowed except with Arab consent. 47 But the Zionist Jews fought this White Paper by a campaign of violence. The three Jewish secret para-military organizations, the Haganah, the Irgun Zvai Leumi and the Stern Gang, joined forces to commit a series of acts of violence against the British Government and secure the withdrawal of its limitation upon Jewish immigration into Palestine. 48
   "Concurrently with their campaign the Zionists exerted all efforts to influence American public opinion and to bring pressure upon the American Government in order to secure their support for large-scale Jewish immigration into Palestine. On the one hand, they quoted certain Biblical promises to the descendants of Abraham as if the Jews, and particularly the Jews of Eastern Europe, who then constituted the largest proportion of Jewish immigrants to Palestine, were his only descendants.  … In addition to the Bible and Nazi persecutions, the Zionist also exploited the 'Jewish vote' in the American elections.  …"
47 Cmd. 6018, May 17 1939
48 For details about these outrages, see Government of Palestine, A Survey of Palestine Vol. I, pp. 56-57; The British Statement on Acts of Violence, Cmd. 6873 (1946); also S.N.Fisher, op. cit., p. 579; G.Kirk, The Middle East 1945-1950 (Oxford University Press, London, 1954), pp. 209-213 and 218-223.

– Henry CATTAN, LLM, 1969, Palestine, the Arabs and Israel; the search for justice, Longmans Green, London and Harlow, pp 23-24 (found and inserted 20 Oct 03). {Events 1939-48}
• 1939-1948, Jewish terrorism. PALESTINE: "Before directing their outrages against the Arab civilian population in 1948, the Jewish terrorist organizations had for several years past turned their wrath against the British authorities in Palestine with the avowed purpose of forcing their hand on the immigration issue.
   The Jews had rebelled, as we have seen, against the British Government's policy declared in its White Paper of May 17 1939 of limiting Jewish immigration into Palestine to 75,000 over the next five years.
   Upon the expiration of this quota, Jewish organizations proceeded to instigate and organize the emigration of Jews from Europe to Palestine in violation of the law and also launched a terrorist campaign against the British in order to secure the repeal of the immigration restrictions.
   During this terrorist campaign, the Jews sabotaged public installations, dynamited government offices, 2 raided military stores, shot, killed, abducted and flogged British soldiers and government officials. 3 "
2 The blowing up of the headquarters of the Palestine Government at Jerusalem by the Irgun Zvai Luemi on July 22 1946 during working hours will remain as the most notorious of these outrages. The terrorists deposited explosives in the basement of the King David Hotel where the government's offices were located and blew up the entire southern half of the east wing, causing the death of 91 persons and the wounding of 45 others: G Kirk, The Middle East 1945-1950 (Oxford University Press, London, 1954), pp. 221-222.
3 See British statement on Acts of Violence, Cmd. 6873 (1946); S.N.Fisher, The Middle East (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1960), pp. 579, 582; G.Kirk, op. cit., pp. 197, 203, 210, 215, 218, 238, 245.

– Henry CATTAN, LLM, 1969, Palestine, the Arabs and Israel; the search for justice, Longmans Green, London and Harlow, pp 39-40 (found quote, and inserted 29 Oct 03)
   [COMMENT: The garrotting of two British servicemen was just as horrible as some of the events mentioned above. COMMENT ENDS.] {Book: 1969}  [Period covered 1939-1948]

• What about Arab atrocities against Jewish civilians before Israel's creation? PALESTINE: Violence by Arabs against the Jewish civilian population of Palestine was a periodic reality. During the Mandate period, whenever Arab dissatisfaction reached a peak, or when anti-Zionist, anti-Semitic Arab [NOTE: Arabs ARE Semites, so they usually aren't anti-Semitic! NOTE ENDS] leaders needed to provoke the British authorities, rioting and Jewish casualties were created.
   Major rioting flared in Palestine during 1920-21, in 1929, and during the Arab Revolt of 1936-39. This was not so different from the experience of Jews all over Europe and was part of the motivation for creating a Jewish state where Jews could control their own security.
   The day after the UN partition resolution of November 29, 1947, violence against Jewish civilians began to escalate. The Arabs declared a protest strike and instigated riots that claimed the lives of 62 Jews and 32 Arabs. By the end of the second week, 93 Arabs, 84 Jews and 7 Englishmen had been killed and scores injured.
   From November 30, 1947 to February 1, 1948 427 Arabs, 381 Jews and 46 British were killed and 1,035 Arabs, 725 Jews and 135 British were wounded. In March alone, 271 Jews and 257 Arabs died in Arab attacks and Jewish counterattacks. These were not military operations, but terrorism against civilian targets intended to achieve political aims for the Arabs who were dissatisfied with the United Nations partition plan.
   – Palestine Facts, "What about Arab atrocities against Jews?" www.palestine independence_ war_atrocities_ arab.php , found and inserted 03 Feb 03
• 1942, during World War II: PALESTINE and NAZI GERMANY: The Jerusalem Mufti Haj Amin el-Husseini (blond-haired and blue-eyed) paid a visit to Nazi Germany, and was the special guest of the dictator Adolph Hitler, presiding over the unveiling of the Islamic Central Institute in December 1942. – Irshad MANJI, 2003, The Trouble with Islam, Random House Australia, Milsons Point, p 105 [1942]
• 1943-44: Mufti Haj Amin el-Husseini addressed imams in the Bosnian SS, assuring them that Islam and Nazism shared a commitment to social order, family structure, hard work, and perpetual struggle – especially against the Americans, the English, and the Jews.  From the capital of Hitler's Reich, Haj Amin broadcast Nazi propaganda to the Arab world: "Kill the Jews wherever you find them," he hissed into a microphone at Radio Berlin on March 1, 1944.  "This pleases God, history, and religion. This saves your honour. God is with you." (MANJI, p 106) [1943-44]
• 1947, May 21: A band of armed Jews attacked a cafe in the Arab village of Fajja, near Petah Tikva, shooting one Arab dead, wounding seven others and placing explosive charges in the premises.  A second band attacked an Arab encampment in the neighbourhood and shot one Arab dead.  A communication to the Hebrew press by the Hagana claimed responsibility for these outrages. – "The Black Paper on the Jewish Agency" (as reprinted in The Palestine Plot, by Borge JENSEN, Third Printing November 1987 (originally June 1948), Omni Publications, Hawthorne (California, USA, Box 216), p 123. [May 21, 1947]
• 1947, June 9-10: Two British members of the Palestine Police Force were kidnapped by armed Jews from a swimming pool near Ramat Gan.  They were stripped, flogged and held as hostages.  They were released only after the British forces cordoned the Jewish settlement of Kiryat Shaul. – "The Black Paper on the Jewish Agency", in JENSEN, p 123. [June 9-10, 1947]
• 1947, July 12: On July 12, [the Judaist] Stern gang terrorists kidnapped two British sergeants – Paice, aged 20 and Martin, aged 21 – as hostages for three Jewish terrorists who were being tried by the Military court for murder and sabotage.  The two sergeants were murdered by hanging.  On July 31, the two blackened bodies of the sergeants were found hanging from twin eucalyptus trees.  One of the bodies was booby-trapped, and when it fell to the ground it set off a mine, blowing that body to pieces which were difficult to collect.  A British Captain nearby was seriously injured.  This revolting crime aroused the wrath of the whole civilised world. – "The Black Paper on the Jewish Agency", in JENSEN, p 123. [July 12, 1947]
• 1948: SOVIET RUSSIA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, and PALESTINE: Soviet dictator Josef Stalin transferred weapons from Czechoslovakia to Jews in Palestine, helping them to withstand the assault from the Arab nations round about.  Shortly after Israel's 1948 victory, Stalin starting arming the Arab countries, particularly Egypt. (MANJI, p 107) [1948]
• 1948: Judaist terrorists assassinated the United Nations mediator for Palestine (appointed 1947), Swedish Count Folke Bernadotte (1895-1948).  He had brought about a truce between the Arabs (Muslims and Christians) and Judaists / Jews.  Previously, during the Second World War (1939-45), as head of the Swedish Red Cross, he had arranged for the exchange of prisoners. (Source, Pears Cyclopaedia, page 38, 61st edition.) [1948]
• 1949: Book Concerning the Bible; A Brief Sketch of Its Origin, Growth and Contents; 6th edition 1949, by Conrad SKINNER, M.A. (Chaplain of the Leys School).  London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Ltd.
Lastly, we notice the Mohammedan Koran, which claims a supernatural origin.  One night, Mohammed was "transported to heaven, and in a moment of time enjoyed 70,000 conversations with Allah, each of which contained 70,000 words.  No wonder that the Koran was regarded as making all other literature in the library of Alexandria superfluous." (p 240)
   … whilst Mohammedan scripture is a singular mixture of the exalted and the puerile, and by continuing to inculcate an unenlightened emphasis on the letter has fathered polygamy and slavery upon its obedient races.  This last fact may be regarded as relevant to ourselves, both as instruction and warning for our attitude to the Old Testament. (p 241)
   [KORAN: 4:3:-marry but two, or three, or four … or the slaves whom ye have acquired.
   4:24 (or 4:28):- Forbidden to you also are married women, except those who are in your hands as slaves … < http://­www.­­suras/s­­ml#24 > DOCTRINE ENDS.]
   [HADITH: Bukhari's, 3, 34:283:- … "The household of Muhammad did not possess even a single Sa of wheat or food grains for the evening meal, although he has nine wives to look after."  (See also Bukhari's hadith 3, 45:685.)
   8, 82:815:- […] Your one-hundred sheep and the slave are to be returned to you … TRADITION ENDS.] [1949]

   Closer to our own times
• 1968 - Rivers of Blood Speech: Enoch Powell     

Rivers of Blood Speech: Enoch Powell

   Speech by Enoch Powell, MP, at the Annual General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Centre, Birmingham, England, April 20, 1968
   Here is the full text of Enoch Powell's famous speech to the Annual General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Centre, Birmingham, England, April 20, 1968.
   The supreme function of statesmanship is to provide against preventable evils. In seeking to do so, it encounters obstacles which are deeply rooted in human nature. One is that by the very order of things such evils are not demonstrable until they have occurred: At each stage in their onset there is room for doubt and for dispute whether they be real or imaginary. By the same token, they attract little attention in comparison with current troubles, which are both indisputable and pressing: whence the besetting temptation of all politics to concern itself with the immediate present at the expense of the future.
   Above all, people are disposed to mistake predicting troubles for causing troubles and even for desiring troubles: 'if only', they love to think, 'if only people wouldn't talk about it, it probably wouldn't happen'. Perhaps this habit goes back to the primitive belief that the word and the thing, the name and the object, are identical. At all events, the discussion of future grave but, with effort now, avoidable evils is the most unpopular and at the same time the most necessary occupation for the politician. Those who knowingly shirk it, deserve, and not infrequently receive, the curses of those who come after.
   A week or two ago I fell into conversation with a constituent, a middle-aged, quite ordinary working man employed in one of our nationalized industries. After a sentence or two about the weather, he suddenly said: 'If I had the money to go, I wouldn't stay in this country.' I made some deprecatory reply, to the effect that even this Government wouldn't last for ever; but he took no notice, and continued: 'I have three children, all of them have been through grammar school and two of them married now, with family. I shan't be satisfied till I have seen them settled overseas. In this country in fifteen or twenty years' time the black man will have the whip hand over the white man.'
   I can already hear the chorus of execration. How dare I say such a horrible thing? How dare I stir up trouble and inflame feelings by repeating such a conversation? The answer is that I do not have the right not to do so. Here is a decent, ordinary fellow Englishman, who in broad daylight in my own town says to me, his Member of Parliament, that this country will not be worth living in for his children. I simply do not have the right to shrug my shoulders and think about something else. What he is saying, thousands and hundreds of thousands are saying and thinking - not throughout Great Britain, perhaps, but in the areas that are already undergoing the total transformation to which there is no parallel in a thousand years of English history.
   In fifteen or twenty years, on present trends, there will be in this country 3 1/2 million Commonwealth immigrants and their descendants. That is not my figure. That is the official figure given to Parliament by the spokesman of the Registrar General's office. There is no comparable official figure for the year 2000, but it must be in the region of 5-7 million, approximately one-tenth of the whole population, and approaching that of Greater London. Of course, it will not be evenly distributed from Margate to Aberystwyth and from Penzance to Aberdeen. Whole areas, towns and parts of towns across England will be occupied by different sections of the immigrant and immigrant-descended population.
   As time goes on, the proportion of this total who are immigrant descendants, those born in England, who arrived here by exactly the same route as the rest of us, will rapidly increase. Already by 1985 the native-born would constitute the majority. It is this fact above all which creates the extreme urgency of action now, of just that kind of action which is hardest for politicians to take, action where the difficulties lie in the present but the evils to be prevented or minimized lie several parliaments ahead.
   The natural and rational first question with a nation confronted by such a prospect is to ask: 'How can its dimensions be reduced?' Granted it be not wholly preventable, can it be limited, bearing in mind that numbers are of the essence: the significance and consequences of an alien element introduced into a country or population are profoundly different according to whether that element is 1 per cent or 10 per cent. The answers to the simple and rational question are equally simple and rational: by stopping or virtually stopping, further inflow, and by promoting the maximum outflow. Both answers are part of the official policy of the Conservative Party.
   It almost passes belief that at this moment twenty or thirty additional immigrant children are arriving from overseas in Wolverhampton alone every week - and that means fifteen or twenty additional families of a decade or two hence. Those whom the gods wish to destroy, they first make mad. We must be mad, literally mad, as a nation to be permitting the annual inflow of some 50,000 dependants, who are for the most part the material of the future growth of the immigrant-descended population. It is like watching a nation busily engaged in heaping up its own funeral pyre. So insane are we that we actually permit unmarried persons to immigrate for the purpose of founding a family with spouses and fiancées whom they have never seen.
   Let no one suppose that the flow of dependants will automatically tail off. On the contrary, even at the present admission rate of only 5,000 a year by voucher, there is sufficient for a further 325,000 dependants per annum ad infinitum, without taking into account the huge reservoir of existing relations in this country - and I am making no allowance at all for fraudulent entry. In these circumstances nothing will suffice but that the total inflow for settlement should be reduced at once to negligible proportions, and that the necessary legislative and administrative measures be taken without delay. I stress the words 'for settlement'.
   This has nothing to do with the entry of Commonwealth citizens, any more than of aliens, into this country, for the purposes of study or of improving their qualifications, like (for instance) the Commonwealth doctors who, to the advantage of their own countries, have enabled our hospital service to be expanded faster than would otherwise have been possible. These are not, and never have been, immigrants.
   I turn to re-emigration. If all immigration ended tomorrow, the rate of growth of the immigrant and immigrant-descended population would be substantially reduced, but the prospective size of this element in the population would still leave the basic character of the national danger unaffected. This can only be tackled while a considerable proportion of the total still comprises persons who entered this country during the last ten years or so. Hence the urgency of implementing now the second element of the Conservative Party's policy: the encouragement of re-emigration.
   Nobody can make an estimate of the numbers which, with generous grants and assistance, would choose either to return to their countries of origin or to go to other countries anxious to receive the manpower and the skills they represent. Nobody knows, because no such policy has yet been attempted. I can only say that, even at present, immigrants in my own constituency from time to time come to me, asking if I can find them assistance to return home. If such a policy were adopted and pursued with the determination which the gravity of the alternative justifies, the resultant outflow could appreciably alter the prospects for the future.
   It can be no part of any policy that existing family should be kept divided; but there are two directions in which families can be reunited, and if our former and present immigration laws have brought about the division of families, albeit voluntary or semi-voluntarily, we ought to be prepared to arrange for them to be reunited in their countries of origin. In short, suspension of immigration and encouragement of re-emigration hang together, logically and humanly, as two aspects of the same approach.
   The third element of the Conservative Party's policy is that all who are in this country as citizens should be equal before the law and that there shall be no discrimination or difference made between them by public authority. As Mr. Heath has put it, we will have no 'first-class citizens' and 'second-class citizens'. This does not mean that the immigrant and his descendants should be elevated into a privileged or special class or that the citizen should be denied his right to discriminate in the management of his own affairs between one fellow citizen and another or that he should be subjected to inquisition as to his reasons and motives for behaving in one lawful manner rather than another.
   There could be no grosser misconception of the realities than is entertained by those who vociferously demand legislation as they call it 'against discrimination', whether they be leader-writers of the same kidney and sometimes on the same newspapers which year after year in the 1930s tried to blind this country to the rising peril which confronted it, or archbishops who live in palaces, faring delicately with the bedclothes pulled right over their heads. They have got it exactly and diametrically wrong. The discrimination and the deprivation, the sense of alarm and resentment, lies not with the immigrant population but with those among whom they have come and are still coming. This is why to enact legislation of the kind before Parliament at this moment is to risk throwing a match on to the gunpowder. The kindest thing that can be said about those who propose and support it is they know not what they do.
   Nothing is more misleading than comparison between the Commonwealth immigrant in Britain and the American Negro. The Negro population of the United states, which was already in existence before the United States became a nation, started literally as slaves and were later given the franchise and other rights of citizenship, to the exercise of which they have only gradually and still incompletely come. The Commonwealth immigrant came to Britain as a full citizen, to a country which knows no discrimination between one citizen and another, and he entered instantly into the possession of the rights of every citizen, from the vote to free treatment under the National Health Service. Whatever drawbacks attended the immigrants - and they were drawbacks which did not, and do not, make admission into Britain by hook or by crook appear less than desirable - arose not from the law or from public policy or from administration but from those personal circumstances and accidents which cause, and always will cause, the fortunes and experience of one man to be different for another's.
   But while to the immigrant entry to this country was admission to privileges and opportunities eagerly sought, the impact upon the existing population was very different. For reasons which they could not comprehend, and in pursuance of a decision by default, on which they were never consulted, they found themselves made strangers in their own country. They found their wives unable to obtain hospital beds in childbirth, their children unable to obtain school places, their homes and neighbourhoods changed beyond recognition, their plans and prospects for the future defeated; at work they found that employers hesitated to apply to the immigrant worker the standards of discipline and competence required of the native-born worker; they began to hear, as time went by, more and more voices which told them that they were now the unwanted. On top of this, they now learn that a one-way privilege is to be established by Act of Parliament: a law, which cannot, and is not intended, to operate to protect them or redress their grievances, is to be enacted to give the stranger, the disgruntled and the agent provocateur the power to pillory them for their private actions.
   In the hundreds upon hundreds of letters I received when I last spoke on this subject two or three months ago, there was one striking feature which was largely new and which I find ominous. All Members of Parliament are used to the typical anonymous correspondent; but what surprised and alarmed me was the high proportion of ordinary, decent, sensible people, writing a rational and often well-educated letter, who believed that they had to omit their address because it was dangerous to have committed themselves to paper to a Member of Parliament agreeing with the views I had expressed, and that they would risk either penalties or reprisals if they were known to have done so. The sense of being a persecuted minority which is growing among ordinary English people in the areas of the country which are affected is something that those without direct experience can hardly imagine. I am going to allow just one of those hundreds of people to speak for me. She did give her name and address, which I have detached from the letter which I am about to read. She was writing from Northumberland about something which is happening at this moment in my own constituency:
   Eight years ago in a respectable street in Wolverhampton a house was sold to a Negro. Now only one white (a woman old-age pensioner) lives there. This is her story. She lost her husband and both her sons in the war. So she turned her seven-roomed house, her only asset, into a boarding house. She worked hard and did well, paid off her mortgage and began to put something by for her old age. Then the immigrants moved in. With growing fear, she saw one house after another taken over. The quiet streets became a place of noise and confusion.
   Regretfully, her white tenants moved out.
   The day after the last one left, she was awakened at 7 a.m. by two Negroes who wanted to use her phone to contact their employer. When she refused, as she would have refused any stranger at such an hour, she was abused and feared she would have been attacked but for the chain on her door. Immigrant families have tried to rent rooms in her house, but she always refused. Her little store of money went, and after paying her rates, she had less than £2 per week. She went to apply for a rate reduction and was seen by a young girl, who on hearing she had a seven-roomed house, suggested she should let part of it. When she said the only people she could get were Negroes, the girl said 'racial prejudice won't get you anywhere in this country'. So she went home.
   The telephone is her lifeline. Her family pay the bill, and help her out as best they can. Immigrants have offered to buy her house - at a price which the prospective landlord would be able to recover from his tenants in weeks, or at most in a few months. She is becoming afraid to go out.
   Windows are broken. She finds excreta pushed through her letterbox. When she goes to the shops, she is followed by children, charming, wide-grinning piccaninnies. They cannot speak English, but one word they know. 'Racialist', they chant. When the new Race Relations Bill is passed, this woman is convinced she will go to prison. And is she so wrong? I begin to wonder.
   The other dangerous delusion from which those who are wilfully or otherwise blind to realities suffer, is summed up in the word 'integration'. To be integrated into a population means to become for all practical purposes indistinguishable from its other members. Now, at all times, where there are marked physical differences, especially of colour, integration is difficult though, over a period, not impossible. There are among the Commonwealth immigrants have come to live here in the last fifteen years or so, many thousands whose wish and purpose is to be integrated and whose every thought and endeavour is bent in that direction. But to imagine that such a thing enters the heads of a great and growing majority of immigrants and their descendants is a ludicrous misconception, and a dangerous one to boot.
   We are on the verge of here of a change. Hitherto it has been force of circumstance and of background which has rendered the very idea of integration inaccessible to the greater part of the immigrant population - that they never conceived or intended such a thing, and that their numbers and physical concentration meant the pressures towards integration which normally bear upon any small minority did not operate. Now we are seeing the growth of positive forces acting against integration, of vested interests in the preservation and sharpening of racial and religious differences, with a view to the exercise of action domination, first over fellow immigrants and then over the rest of the population. The cloud no bigger than a man's hand, that can so rapidly overcast the sky, has been visible recently in Wolverhampton and has shown signs of spreading quickly. The words I am about to use, verbatim as they appeared in the local press on 17 February, are not mine, but those of a Labour Member of Parliament who is a Minister in the present Government.
   The Sikh communities' campaign to maintain customs inappropriate in Britain is much to be regretted.  Working in Britain, particularly in the public services, they should be prepared to accept the terms and conditions of their employment.  To claim special communal rights (or should one say rites?) leads to a dangerous fragmentation within society.  This communalism is a canker:  whether practised by one colour or another it is to be strongly condemned.
   All credit to John Stonehouse for having had the insight to perceive that, and the courage to say it.
   For these dangerous and divisive elements the legislation proposed in the Race Relations Bill is the very pabulum they need to flourish. Here is the means of showing that the immigrant communities can organize to consolidate their members, to agitate and campaign against their fellow citizens, and to overawe and dominate the rest with the legal weapons which the ignorant and the ill-informed have provided. As I look ahead, I am filled with foreboding.
   Like the Roman, I seem to see 'the River Tiber foaming with much blood'. That tragic and intractable phenomenon which we watch with horror on the other side of the Atlantic but which there is interwoven with the history and existence of the States itself, is coming upon us here by our own volition and our own neglect. Indeed, it has all but come. In numerical terms, it will be of American proportions long before the end of the century.
   Only resolute and urgent action will avert it even now. Whether there will be the public will to demand and obtain that action, I do not know. All I know is that to see, and not to speak, would be the great betrayal. #

   [RECAPITULATION: Now we are seeing the growth of positive forces acting against integration, of vested interests in the preservation and sharpening of racial and religious differences, with a view to the exercise of action [? actual] domination, first over fellow immigrants and then over the rest of the population. […]
   It can be no part of any policy that existing family should be kept divided; but there are two directions in which families can be reunited, and if our former and present immigration laws have brought about the division of families, albeit voluntary or semi-voluntarily, we ought to be prepared to arrange for them to be reunited in their countries of origin. In short, suspension of immigration and encouragement of re-emigration hang together, logically and humanly, as two aspects of the same approach. […]
   [Minister in the Labour Government, John Stonehouse said:] The Sikh communities' campaign to maintain customs inappropriate in Britain is much to be regretted. Working in Britain, particularly in the public services, they should be prepared to accept the terms and conditions of their employment. To claim special communal rights (or should one say rites?) leads to a dangerous fragmentation within society. This communalism is a canker: whether practised by one colour or another it is to be strongly condemned. [– Labour Minister John Stonehouse.] ENDS.]
   [COMMENTARY: The name given subsequently to the speech arose from its allusion to Virgil's line from the Aeneid 6, 1.86 (Powell had an academic background as a Classicist) about the Tiber foaming with blood: "Et Thybrim multo spumantem sanguine cerno."
   The next day, the Leader of the Opposition Edward Heath sacked Powell from his Shadow Cabinet. Powell hadn't notified Conservative Central Office of his intentions, and this was expounded as one reason for his dismissal. Powell never held another senior political post.
   The speech was followed by strikes, in particular in London's docklands, both in support and in opposition. Powell gained considerable support from the public, receiving over 43,000 letters and 700 telegrams, which overloaded Wolverhampton's postal system. Only 4 telegrams and 800 letters expressed a form of hostility to him or his message.
   Powell was supported by MPs such as Sir Gerald Nabarro. Some supportive commentators attributed the surprise 1970 election victory by Edward Heath to the swing in Powell's West Midlands heartland, while other more hostile commentators have said that this speech alienated many immigrants from the Conservative Party.
   Following the Brixton, Toxteth and Handsworth riots in the 1980s, Powell claimed that his 'rivers of blood' prediction had come true.
   The speech remains well-known and controversial in Britain today …
   Trivia: 'Rivers of Blood' is also a song by the British nationalist skinhead band Brutal Attack, from their 1985 `Stronger Than Before' album. ENDS.]
   [ADDITIONAL COMMENT: After the London and Madrid train bombings and the attempted bombings, the ideas of the late Mr Enoch Powell were praised by some people.  But the Establishment actually sees a need to fill illusory "skills shortages," and anyone who can get into any country of the European Union has a fairly easy time until they go to any country they choose.  Perhaps somebody knows who pays their transport costs. ENDS.]
   [ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: www.nick , Apr 20, 2008. ENDS.]
[April 20, 1968]

• 1973 - Middle East time-bomb. Palestine Authority flag; Palestine Authority website  Israel flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   The West Australian, "Middle East time-bomb," by British historian Arnold TOYNBEE, p 7, Thur, July 26, 1973
   PALESTINE / ISRAEL: … The Middle East contains the dispossessed Palestinian Arabs, their Arab kinsmen, the Israelis and the biggest proved reserves of oil. …
   In the territory included in Israel within the pre-1967 armistice lines, about 90 per cent of the population were Arabs before the Great War.  Since 1948 most of these Arabs have been refugees living in camps on the non-Israeli side of the pre-1967 armistice lines.
   They have nothing to look forward to. … A second defusing measure would be to implement the U.N. resolution calling on Israel to withdraw from territories occupied in the 1967 war. …
   The Israeli General Staff's strategic arguments have been outdated long ago by military technology. … Israel's security depends on its political relations with the Arabs and the super-powers …
   Senator Fullbright warned that if the Arab States boycotted oil for the United States in retaliation for its support of Israel, America might be tempted to conquer such States by proxy. …
   Our material greed has set us on a collision course with nature. … The Middle East time bomb cannot be defused without a change of heart …
   The Israelis and Arabs need to renounce their pugnacity. The Westerners, Russians and Japanese need to renounce their greed. [Jul 26, 1973]

• 1976;   KOESTLER, Arthur;    THE THIRTEENTH TRIBE:   The Khazar Empire and its heritage.

  The Thirteenth Tribe, Arthur KOESTLER
   Do Jewish (Judaist) citizens of the modern country of Israel have a racial connection with the ancient country of Israel, in Palestine, south-west Asia?  Were their ancestors ancient Israelites?
   Author Arthur Koestler writes that the racial and historical links are largely an illusion, because most of their ancestry derives from a Turkic people in Europe, the Khazars, from north of the Black and Caspian Seas to the Caucasus Mountains, not the Semites of south-west Asia. (see pages 223-6)
   This book traces the history of the ancient Khazar Empire, a major but almost forgotten power in Eastern Europe, which in the Dark Ages became converted to Judaism.  Khazaria was finally wiped out by the forces of Genghis Khan (a Mongol conqueror), but evidence indicates that the Khazars themselves gradually migrated to Poland and formed the cradle of Western Jewry…
   To the general reader the Khazars, who flourished from the seventh to the eleventh century of the Common Era (i.e., after Christ), may seem infinitely remote today.  Yet they have a close and unexpected bearing on our world which emerges as Mr. Koestler recounts the fascinating history of the ancient Khazar Empire, a major but almost forgotten power in Eastern Europe at about the time that Charlemagne was Emperor in the West.  The Khazars' sway extended from the Black Sea to the Caspian, from the Caucasus to the Volga, and they were instrumental in stopping the Muslim onslaught against Byzantium, the eastern jaw of the gigantic pincer movement that in the West swept across northern Africa and into Spain. Khazaria Empire map, in Arthur KOESTLER book
   Between Eastern Christians and Muslims, they chose Judaism: Thereafter the Khazars found themselves in a precarious position between the two major world powers: the Eastern Roman Empire in Byzantium (Orthodox Christians) and the triumphant followers of Mohammed (Muslims).  As Mr. Koestler points out, the Khazars were the Third World of their day, and they chose a surprising method of resisting both the Western pressure to become Christian and the Eastern to adopt Islam.  Rejecting both, they converted to Judaism.
   In the second part of this book, "The Heritage," Mr. Koestler speculates about the ultimate faith of the Khazars and their impact on the racial composition and social heritage of modern Jewry. He produces a large body of meticulously detailed research in support of a theory that sounds all the more convincing for the restraint with which it is advanced.  Yet should this theory be confirmed, the term "anti-Semitism" would become void of meaning, since, as Mr. Koestler writes, it is based "on a misapprehension shared by both the killers and their victims."  The story of the Khazar Empire, as it slowly emerges from the past, begins to look like the most cruel hoax which history has ever perpetrated." (adapted from the back cover)
   The Khazars used to impose a 10 per cent tax on the Rus (otherwise identified with Varangians, as Vikings were called in that region) trading and raiding ships that sailed on the rivers through their territory (adapted from pp 92 and 112).
   Persecutions during the Crusades: Before the Western "Christian" warriors of the First Crusade, AD 1096, left the Franco-German areas of Europe to free Jerusalem, mob hysteria led to great slaughters of the Judaists (Jews) (see pp 162-3).  At one stage some Jews were given shelter in the fortified castle of the Bishop of Burgrave (pp 164-5).
   A typical episode: During the second crusade the survivors of the Jews of Mayence found refuge in Spires, later returning to their native city and building a replacement synagogue (place of worship) (see p 165).
   Philip le Bel of France levied heavy taxes on Jews for some years, then secretly ordered that all their possessions be seized and they be expelled.  On July 22, 1306, the Jews of his domains were all arrested, and expelled a few weeks later, mainly going to Provence, Burgundy, Aquitaine, and a few other feudal fiefs (see p 166).  The Black Death, caused by microscopic organisms spread by rat fleas, was another heavy blow for Judaists, who were accused of poisoning the wells, and Jewish survivors of the Black Death were murdered in batches. (see p 167).
   We may safely conclude that the traditional idea of a mass-exodus of Western Jewry from the Rhineland to Poland all across Germany … is historically untenable (p 168).
   Language: According to the first all-Russian census in 1897, there were 12 894 Karaite Jews living in the Tsarist Empire (which, of course, included Poland).  Of these 9666 gave Turkish as their mother tongue (i.e., presumably their original Khazar dialect), 2632 spoke Russian, and only 383 spoke Yiddish (pp 176-7).
   Israel 's right to exist: The State of Israel's right to exist is based on international law, based on the decision of the United Nations in 1947 to partition Palestine.  The partition decision was based on a century of peaceful immigration and pioneering effort, he wrote (p 223).  The right of the State of Israel to exist is not based on the supposed origins of the ancient Israelites and Judahites, nor on the myth that Abraham had a covenant with their god, he wrote. (see p 223)
   DETAILS: Random House (New York), originally Hutchinson & Co (London), © 1976.   ISBN 0-394-40284-7; Dewey shelf number 947.901, 256 pp, soft covers, 14·2 x 21·5 x 1·2 centimetres (5 5/8 x 8 5/8 x 1/2 inch), contents, index, 4 appendices, selected bibliography, endnotes, map, acknowledgements and thanks.  AUD $14 from Heritage Bookshop, Melbourne, 2009.
   [RECAPITULATION: The Khazars … were instrumental in stopping the Muslim onslaught against Byzantium, the eastern jaw of the gigantic pincer movement that in the West swept across northern Africa and into Spain. … Yet should this theory [that today's Jews are descended largely from the Khazars] be confirmed, the term "anti-Semitism" would become void of meaning, since, as Mr. Koestler writes, it is based "on a misapprehension shared by both the killers and their victims." ENDS.]
   [The KHAZAR word is also spelt Chazar in much literature, as well as Chozar, Chozr, Kazar, and other names applied to them include Ibn Fadlan and ibn-Fadlan, Al Masudi and al-Masudi (see p 203). ENDS.]
   [AUTHOR: Arthur Koestler was born in 1905 in Budapest, Hungary.  He became a foreign correspondent in Europe.  He was interned by the Spanish Nationalists, was a Communist from 1931 until the Soviet purges of 1938, and in 1939-40 he was interned by the French.  Most of his later life was spent as an author based in London.
   Writings include Darkness at noon, The god that failed, The ghost in the machine, Suicide of a nation?, and Twilight bar. [1976]
• [1980 - Islamic marriage is like slavery, serfdom.]

[Islamic marriage is like slavery, serfdom]

   The hidden face of Eve, by Nawal El Sa'dawi; London, Zed press, pp 139-140, published 1980.
   The institution of marriage remained very different for men to what it was for women, and the rights accorded to husbands were distinct from those accorded to wives.  In fact it is probably not accurate to use the term 'rights of the woman' since a woman under the Islamic system of marriage has no human rights unless we consider that a slave has rights under a slave system. Marriage, in so far as women are concerned, is just like slavery to the slave, or the chains of serfdom to the serf.
   [AS QUOTED IN: Women in Islam, By P. NEWTON and M. Rafiqul HAQQ, http://members. AlHaqq4u , p 34 and see p 49, ©1995, 3rd edition March 2001, Published at Bend (Oregon, USA): The Berean Call, www.tbcorders. org/default. asp , ISBN 0-88264-310-x.  E-mail: newton § integrity org .  Fourth edition January 2006, www.debate. newton .  ENDS.] [1980]

• 1985 - Husband's Rights Are Greater Than The Sacrifice Of Woman's Breasts. 

Husband’s Rights Are Greater Than The Sacrifice Of Woman’s Breasts

   Al-Mar'ah wal-Islam, Dar al-Kitab al-Lubnani; by Ahmad Zaky Tuffaha, page 176, published 1985.
   If a woman offered one of her breasts to be cooked and the other to be roasted, she still will fall short of fulfilling her obligations to her husband. And besides that, if she disobeys her husband even for a twinkling of an eye, she would be thrown in the lowest part of Hell, except she repents and turns back.
   [AS QUOTED IN: Women in Islam, By P. Newton and M. Rafiqul Haqq, http://members. AlHaqq4u , p 11 and see p 45, ©1995, 3rd edition March 2001, Published at Bend (Oregon, USA): The Berean Call, www.tbcorders. org/default. asp , ISBN 0-88264-310-x.  E-mail: newton@ integrity. org .  Fourth edition January 2006, www.debate. newton , newton@ integrity. org .   ENDS.] [1985]

• 1986 / 1987: No vision in 1948; Retaliation around 1980s led to more momentum for Islamic Brotherhood and offshoots.
   The War Against the Terrorists; How to Win it, 1987 (orig 1986), by Gayle Rivers, Charter Books, New York, Chapter 11 "Retaliation," p 203
   NEW YORK: The real victims, of course, were the Lebanese people and their identity as a nation. … My last visits during 1983 and 1984 were operational, and I found myself in a country ravaged by war. … All this because the politicians couldn't work it out with any vision in Palestine way back in 1948.
   The irony is that the terrorist world became stronger and more cohesive. The historic Islamic brotherhood, which spawned Al Fatah and the PLFP, Black September and the other offshoots, had gained enormous momentum … [orig. 1986; 1987]

• 1988, July and August: [Fatwa ordering deaths of 2800 to 10,000 in Iran]

  Iran (formerly Persia) flag; 
   New Internationalist, Currents section currents@ , "Human Rights: Forgotten massacre; The Ayatollah's hidden legacy," by Veronique Mistiaen, p 25, January-February 2006 issue (Fatwa; Massacres July and August 1988)
   IRAN: … In July and August 1988, the Islamic regime had executed in secret thousands of political prisoners throughout the country - men, women and teenagers. They were intellectuals, students, leftists, members of opposition parties and ethnic and religious minorities. Many were jailed for no more than distributing leaflets, having a banned book or being accused by 'a trusted friend of the regime'.
   The slaughter was efficient and relentless. All day long, prisoners were loaded on forklift trucks and hanged from cranes and beams in groups of six at half-hourly intervals. Others were killed by firing squad. Those not executed were subjected to horrific torture. The killing was 'an act of violence unprecedented in Iranian history, unprecedented in form, content and intensity,' wrote the historian Ervand Abrahamian in his book on Iranian prisons Tortured Confessions. […]
    A fuller version is on a webpage in date order of the NI publication. {January-February 2006} [Massacres July-Aug 1988]

• [1988 - Robust immigrant group blames another for all wars, homosexuality, hoarding, and world control.]  Australia flag; 

[Robust immigrant group blames another for all wars, homosexuality, hoarding, and world control.]

   Based on The Weekend Australian Magazine, November 19-20, 1988.
   SYDNEY: In September 1988 Sheikh Taj Eldine El-Hilaly, Imam of the Lakemba Mosque, Sydney, spoke to Muslim students at Sydney University.
   He described Judaists as "the underlying cause of all wars threatening the peace and security of the whole world," and accused them of "a malicious disposition towards all mankind." 
   He said they used "sex and abominable acts of b*ggery, espionage, treason and economic hoarding to control the world." (Campell and Hulmann, 1995, pp 97-98)
   [DOCTRINE: 5:51> (or 5:56), 5:59-60 (or 5:64-65), 5:82 (or 5:85), 9:29, 33:26-27, 98:6 (or 98:5).   DOCTRINE ENDS.]
   [COMMENT: Disgraceful!  In spite of having similar scriptures, the modern Jews do NOT whip the VICTIMS of rape, or stone adulterers to death, in these modern times.  The story of how the Labor Party allowed Sheikh al-Hilali to remain in Australia, in spite of expert advice to the contrary from both Australians and foreigners, is the story of Australia betrayed.  After 9/11 he told people overseas that the destruction of the two towers and part of the Pentagon was a judgement of Allah!  From the 1980s-90s and onwards, the major political parties have "deselected" political candidates and even sitting members of Parliament who worked to stop the admission of unsuitable immigrants.   COMMENT ENDS.] [Actual occurrence September 1988; published Nov 19-20, 1988]

• 1990: Money for Islamic school.
   Link, Official publication of the One Australia Movement, Perth, W. Australia, "Money for Moslems," p 5, June 1990
   PERTH: The WA State and Federal governments have contributed a third of the cost of a community high school and a new primary school for Muslims in the Perth suburb of Thornlie.
   The Muslims hope to build a university within the next four years.
   How much taxpayers' money will be used for this further promotion of a multi-racial society?
   And how much would the government of Egypt or Iran give to establish Christian schools in their countries?
   [DOCTRINE: 4 - 58.22: You shall not find a people who believe in Allah and the latter day befriending those who act in opposition to Allah and His Apostle, even though they were their (own) fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kinsfolk. DOCTRINE ENDS.] [CONTACT (as it was in 1990): PO Box 361, Midland, WA, 6056; Tel 09 377 5822. CONTACT ENDS.] [June 1990]
• 1990, August 2: Iraq invades Kuwait.               

Iraq invades Kuwait; 1990, August 2

   On 2 August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. The international community responded by placing a trade embargo on Iraq, and issued ultimatums through the United Nations. Iraq took hundreds of innocent Westerners hostage, and dug its troops in to the occupied territory.
   On 17 January 1991, 38 nations led by the United States of America, went to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation, and to destroy Iraq's military power for the future safety of the gulf region.
   The Saddam Hussein regime launched dozens of Soviet-made Scud missiles at residential areas in Israel.
   They opened the spigots of Kuwait's main supertanker-loading pier to pour millions of litres of crude oil into the seas of the Persian Gulf. They set fire to 600 oil wells throughout Kuwait. They destroyed hotels and government buildings, and looted.
   When the 43-day liberation war ended, it was discovered that the Iraqis had torn off the fingernails of Kuwaitis who displayed pictures of their emir. They had drilled holes in the kneecaps of resistance suspects - or inflated their intestines with air or cut off their ears or gouged out their eyes - before murdering them.
   Early on in the Iraqi occupation, "the Iraqis killed so many young men … that the bodies were taken to a skating rink for short-term preservation" (The Bulletin/Newsweek, 12 March 1991). And they raped and humiliated Kuwaiti women at will.
   – Adapted from: "Delivered from bondage," Challenge (W. Australia), mailtoCOLON infoATchall engenewsDOT org, By ANDREW LANSDOWN, pp 1 and 2, April 2008

   [COMMENT: And there was no Islamic Fatwa issued, and enforced by Muslim nations, against Saddam Hussein.  Was there any literature that Iraqis would have studied that says great leaders invade other countries, that people who do not obey face dreadful punishments, that the producing trees of an enemy are burnt, that garments of fire will be cut for opponents, and that the products of this world are only a plaything, not to be compared with the Life to Come? COMMENT ENDS.]
[Aug 2, 1990]

• PRYCE-JONES, David (b 1936); 1991;    THE CLOSED CIRCLE; An interpretation of the Arabs  

   The Closed Circle; David PRYCE-JONES "Arabs interviewed on TV denounce America and say that the West doesn't understand the Arab world.  They're perfectly right.  We don't.  An absolutely indis­pensable source of information on Arab polities is David Pryce-Jones' The Closed Circle." - Saul Bellow (front cover)
   In the course of their transformation into present-day Iranians, Persians are in the same predicament as Turks and Arabs in having to decide what sort of adaptations to make to the world outside the House of Islam. (page ix)
   … the Arab order in its post-1945 independence has been reverting to basic tribal and kinship structures, … as they were in precolonial days … (page 19)
   Occupying the center of social and moral value judgements [by the Arabs], shame and honor are a good deal harder to ignore or repudiate than Islam: because they coincide, the two codes enforce identity and conformity of behavior. (p 35) [centre, honour, behaviour]
   (The shame-honour response and the power-challenge dialectic are explained on page 119.)
   (The Jews are attacked in the Koran, says page 191, and are banned from Arabia to this day, says p 273.)
   (The Muslim allies of the Nazis around World War II are mentioned on pp 205-7, and the murderous ways of the Gulf States are discussed on page 263.)
   … The customary attachment of notions of honor to status and behavior, leading to pursuit of military heroism that has long since been obsolete and make-believe in practice, continues to obstruct all reformist thought or experiment throughout the Arab world.  Concession of rights to one another, or to members of other tribes and religions, entails loss of supremacy.  Anyone who granted equal rights to outsiders and strangers, or who managed to construct participatory institutions to that end, would be considered to have harmed and diminished himself and his own kind … and he could not survive what would be perceived as humiliation. … (p 403)
   Islam, to which the Arabs have always turned for identity, ceased in its earliest year to be unitary.  Whether Sunni or Shia, ambitious men in all centuries abused the Holy Law they were supposed to be upholding, in sectarian wars and challenges to advance themselves. … (pp 403-4)
   … At present, an Arab democrat is not even an idealization, but a contradition in terms. … the Arabs are the losers, … the rest of the world is deprived of what ought to be the valuable contribution of these people.  (From the last paragraph of the Conclusion; p 406)
   Designed by Sidney Feinberg (page iv).  Cover design © by Neil Stuart (back cover).
   The Closed Circle provides the key to understanding the ongoing conflict in the Middle East. In a fascinating exploration of a complex culture, David Pryce-Jones shows that the Arabs are caught in a closed circle, where ancient codes of shame, honor, and the quest for power are as deeply rooted as they are foreign to Western concepts of loyalty, order, and justice. Pryce-Jones argues that Western provincialism has put blinders on our perception of the Arab character, and until we come to grips with the deeper forces driving the Arabs, our misconceptions will continue to undermine our Middle East policies.
   "David Pryce-Jones has read widely and thought hard on the Arab predicament, and the result is as brilliant as it is depressing. He has the courage to document what very few Westerners – but a fair number of Arab observers – have dared discuss. … The Closed Circle is a landmark for understanding the politics of the Middle East." - Daniel Pipes, Foreign Policy Research Institute
   "Bracing. To read it is to galvanize your thinking on an often confusing subject." - Christopher Lehmann-Haupt
   "What is most fascinating about The Closed Circle, and perhaps most important about it, is the way Pryce-Jones has put sociology to work in his analysis of the history and politics of the Middle East." - L.A. Daily News
   "A scathing and provocative critique." - Publishers Weekly
   David Pryce-Jones is the author of fifteen books. Three years' effort went into the writing of The Closed Circle, but it is the fruit of a lifelong interest in the subject, which began with childhood experiences in Morocco and continued, over the course of his career, with repeated trips back to the Middle East to study Arab history and culture. (back cover)
   FACTS: The author is a former war correspondent. (see page 8)
   DETAILS: Publisher: HarperPerennial, A Division of HarperCollinsPublishers. An Edward Burlingame Book, New York, © 1989 and 1991, paperback published 1991, Classification: Current Affairs.  Softcover: 464 + xvi pages; 13·5 x 20·3 x 3 centimetres (5 1/4 x 8 x 1 1/8 inches).  Contents, Preface, Introduction, Conclusion, Source Notes (36 pages of references), Index, Map. ISBN 0-06-098103-2 (pbk), Dewey shelf number 909.0974927. RRP: US $12.95, CAN $16.95. Obtained from Warwick Book Exchange, Perth metropolitan area, W. Australia
[To this website 23 Oct 2011; First edition 1989, paperback edition 1991]

• 1991 – Betty Mahmoody's flight from a brutal Iran.
United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  Iran (Persia) flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   The West Australian, "A great escape; Betty Mahmoody's flight from a brutal Iran," interview with Helen Crompton, "Liftout" section page 12; film review p 20, Thu Aug 8 1991. (Book described at reading.htm#mahmoody.)
   UNITED STATES: This interview was with the subject of the film Not Without My Daughter. Betty Mahmoody in 1984 was a happy middle-class United States housewife who lived with a model husband and father, who was a successful doctor. He was "intelligent, generous and charming" in those days.
   He then organised a two week holiday for themselves and their daughter, Mahtob. But in Iran he told her she was never returning from Iran, she would die there. She was virtually gaoled. It took her 18 months to organise her escape. The film is the story of her ordeal.
   She is telling the world her story, and receiving stories from others, e.g.: The German woman who gave up hope of escaping from Egypt, and killed her two sons and herself; the American woman held captive with her children in southern Teheran (Iran) for eight years.
   The organisation she is forming is One World for Children. Mrs Mahmoody has received awards from the U.S.A. and Germany. [Aug 8, 1991]
• [1992-93 - Slay; Fight the Unbelievers who are near to you – Koran.]  Saudi Arabia flag; 

[Slay; Fight the Unbelievers who are near to you – Koran]

   SAUDI ARABIA: The Holy Qur-ān (i.e., Koran), Issued as a gift by King Fahd Ibn Abdul-Aziz (not for sale); Printed by The King Fahd Complex For The Printing of The Holy Qur-ān, P.O. Box 3561, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia; Arabic text; With English translation and commentaries of Abdullah YUSUF ALI, revised and edited by The Presidency of Islamic Researches, Ifta, Call and Guidance (Saudi Arabia); Dated Year 1413 H., i.e., 1992-93 A.D.

   [[Page 473; Sūrat 8, Āyat 15-16]]
15.  O ye who believe!
      When ye meet
      The Unbelievers
      In hostile array 1190
      Never turn your backs
      To them. […]
      Unless it be in a stratagem […]

   [[Pages 536-537; Sūrat 9, Āyat 111]]
111. Allah hath purchased of the Believers
      Their persons and their goods;
      For theirs (in return)
      Is the Garden (of Paradise): 1361
      They fight in His Cause,
      And slay and are slain:

      A promise binding on Him
      In Truth, through the Torah,
      The Gospel, and the Qur-ān 1362
      And who is more faithful
      To his Covenant than Allah?
      Then rejoice in the bargain
      Which ye have concluded:
      That is the achievement supreme.

   [[Page 541; Sūrat 9, Āyat 123]]
123. O ye who believe!  Fight
      The Unbelievers who are near to you 1374
      And let them find harshness
      In you:  and know that Allah
      Is with those who fear Him.
The Holy Qur-ān/Koran, Saudi Arabia
   1190. The laws of Jihād are exactly similar to those enforced by military virtue and discipline.  Meet your enemy fairly and squarely, not rashly, but after due preparation.  Zahfan in the text (meeting in hostile array) implies a slow and well-planned proceeding towards a hostile army.  When once in combat, carry it through:  there is no room for second thoughts.  Death or victory should be the motto of every soldier:  it may be death for himself individually, but if he has faith, there is triumph in either case for his cause.  Two exceptions are recognised:  (1) reculer pour mieux sauter, to go back in order to jump forward; or to deceive the enemy by a feint; (2) if an individual or body is, by the chances of battle, isolated from his own force, he can fall back on his force in order to fight the battle.  There is no virtue in mere single-handedness.  Each individual must use his life and his resources to the best advantage for the common cause.
   1361. In a human bargain both sides give something and receive some advantage.  In the divine bargain of Allah with man, Allah takes man's will and soul and his wealth and goods, and gives him in return ever-lasting Felicity.  Man fights in Allah's Cause and carries out His will.  All that he has to give up is the ephemeral things of this world, while he gains eternal salvation, the fulfilment of his highest spiritual hopes,–a supreme achievement indeed.
   1362. We offer our whole selves and our possessions to Allah, and Allah gives us Salvation.  This is the true doctrine of redemption:  and we are taught that this is the doctrine not only of the Qur-ān but of the earlier Revelations,–the earlier Law of Moses and the original Gospel of Jesus.  Any other view of redemption is rejected by Islam, especially that of corrupted Christianity, which thinks that some other person suffered for our sins and we are redeemed by his blood.  It is our self-surrender that counts, not other people's merits.  Our complete self-surrender may include fighting for the cause, both spiritual and physical.  As regards actual fighting with the sword there had been some difference in theological theories at different times, but very little in the practice of those who framed those theories.  The Jewish wars were ruthless wars of extermination.  The Old Testament does not mince matters on this subject.  In the New Testament St. Paul, in commending the worthy fruits of Faith, mentions Gideon, Barak, and other warriors of the Old Testament as his ideals.  "Who through faith subdued kingdoms… waxed valiant in fight, turned to fight the armies of the aliens…" (Hebrews, xi. 32-34).  The monkish morality of the Gospels in their present form has never been followed by any self-respecting Christian or other nations in history.  Nor is it common-sense to ignore lust of blood in unregenerate man as a form of evil which has to be combated "within the limits, set by Allah" (Q. ix. 112).
   1374. When conflict become inevitable, the first thing is to clear our surroundings of all evil, for it is only evil that we can rightly fight.  To evil we must put up a stout and stiff resistance.  Mealy-mouthed compromises are not right for soldiers of truth and righteousness.  They are often a compound of cowardice, weariness, greed, and corruptibility.
[[ Compare text at:  < > and the others. ]]
[ < > ]
   [NUMBERING: Āya 9:111 is shown as 9:112 in some books.  And āya 9:123 is sometimes shown as 9:124.
   [1362: RECAPITULATION: The monkish morality of the Gospels in their present form has never been followed by any self-respecting Christian or other nations in history. ENDS.]
   [COMMENT on 1362: Let us hope that the monks (and nuns) in the Orthodox, Catholic, and other Churches pay attention to that footnote! ENDS.]
   [1374: RECAPITULATION: … the first thing is to clear our surroundings of all evil … ENDS.]
   [COMMENT on 1374: That footnote's advice ought to be taken to heart by those who seem to be just waiting to become second-rate subjects of the Crescent !!!  Doubters ought to enlarge their vocabularies by learning the word for humbled peoples, i.e. dhimmi, used in other Islamic literature, or read Sookhdeo's writings, or buy a Koran, or check a Koran in a public library, Dewey shelf number 297.1225. ENDS.] [Received Jun 13, 2007; Dated Year 1413 H., i.e., 1992-93 A.D.]

• [1992-93 – Christian leaders lording, idolatrous, false, devour wealth, will suffer in Hell – Koran.]
  Saudi Arabia flag; 

[Christian leaders lording, idolatrous, false, devour wealth, will suffer in Hell – Koran]

   SAUDI ARABIA: The Holy Qur-ān (i.e., Koran), Issued as a gift by King Fahd Ibn Abdul-Aziz (not for sale); Printed by The King Fahd Complex For The Printing of The Holy Qur-ān, P.O. Box 3561, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia; Dated Year 1413 H., i.e., 1992-93 A.D.
   Arabic text; With translation into English and commentaries of Abdullah YUSUF ALI, revised and edited by The Presidency of Islamic Researches, Ifta, Call and Guidance (Saudi Arabia);
   (This is an entry in date order.  To read the actual item from the Saudi Koran, click:
   < > )
   [Received Jun 13, 2007; Dated Year 1413 H., i.e., 1992-93 A.D.]

  HAWKE, Robert J. L. ("Bob"); May 1994;    The HAWKE Memoirs  

  [The Soviet dictatorship in 1971 did not wish to let Judaists migrate to Israel, because 15 per cent of scientists and people with state secrets were Judaists.]       
   The Hawke Memoirs; R.J.L.Hawke; 1994 I raised all these matters with Gorbachev … the cause of Jewish refuseniks …
   I remembered Shelepin's plaintive defence to me in 1971 that while Jews were less than 2 per cent of the population, they constituted at least 15 per cent of scientists and those with access to state secrets regarded as essential to national security. … (pages 362-63).

   DETAILS: Author Robert J.L.Hawke © 1994, Prime Minister of Australia 1976-1990; Publisher: William Heinemann Australia, , Port Melbourne (Australia).  ISBN 0-85561-502-8; Dewey shelf number 994.063092 and/or B/HAW, 618 + xv pages, hard covers with dust jacket, 16 x 24 x 5 centimetres (6 1/4 x 9 1/2 x 2 inches), contents, index,endnotes, appendices, photographs.  ARP AUD $49·95.
   [COMMENT: For another of Bob Hawke's attempts to help some refuseniks, finally successful, see pp 89-92. [1994]

• [1995 - Women in Islam – sex slaves, and pious men's desires for frequent carnal relations.] 

Women in Islam

   Published by The Berean Call, www.tbcorders. org/default. asp , By P. Newton and M. Rafiqul Haqq, pp 20-22, 1995.    Women in Islam, P. NEWTON and M. Rafiqul HAQQ
   Some believe the number is limited to nine wives, as two and three and four make nine, and Muhammad himself when he passed away had nine wives and to follow his tradition is the commended way of living. 83
   Others believe that the above verse is the proof for an unlimited number of wives because the verse does not say two or three or four.  The verse, literally, says two and three and four, meaning two and three and four etc. 84  The majority believe the number of wives the man may marry to be limited to four, because of the reported Hadith about a man who had ten wives.  When he became a Muslim, Muhammad said to him: 'Keep four, and leave the rest.' 85
   The reason for marrying more than one woman is given by Ghazali, the great Muslim scholar:
Some men have such a compelling sexual desire that one woman is not sufficient to protect them [from adultery].  Such men therefore preferably marry more than one woman and may have up to four wives. 86
   Besides the above provision, men have the right to have sex with their slave girls.
For if a man purchases a slave girl, the purchase contract includes his right to have sex with her. 87
This contract is primarily to own her and secondarily to enjoy her sexually. 88
   And the reason for having sex with the slave girls beside one's wives is also given by Ghazali:
Since among Arabs passion is an overpowering aspect of their nature, the need of their pious men to have sex has been found to be the more intense.  And for the purpose of emptying the heart to the worship of God they have been allowed to have sex with women slaves if at some time they should fear that this passion would lead them to commit adultery.  Though it is true that such action could lead to the birth of a child that will be a slave, which is a form of destruction,… yet enslaving a child is a lighter offence than the destruction of religious belief.  For enslaving the newborn is a temporary thing but by committing adultery eternity is lost. 89 […]
   …Bukhari reported,
The Prophet used to pass (have sexual relation with) all his wives in one night, and at that time he had nine wives. 91
For "He once said of himself that he had been given the power of forty men in sex." 92
And "Ali who was the most ascetic of all the companions had four wives and seventeen slave girls as concubines." 93
While some of the other companions had three and four wives and those who had two wives were countless in number. 94
   Concerning the provision for having sex with slave girls, found in the last part of the above Qur'anic verse, Razi said:
God made the provision of having sex with many slave girls as easy as marrying one free woman. Besides, the responsibilities and provisions of the slave girls are lighter than those of the dowers, no matter (never mind) if you have a few of them or many, no matter if you were fair in apportioning your nights amongst them or not, no matter whether you completed the sexual act or not. 95
   The commentator Qortobi sees in that verse (Q. 4:3) that slave girls used as such by the free Muslim man,
have neither sexual rights, nor financial rights. For God made the 'one free woman' and the 'slave girls you may own' of the same category.  The man however owes the slave girls the appropriate rights of ownership, and the kindness that befits slaves." 96
   So because the need of the pious men to have sex was found to be the more intense, and for the purpose of emptying their hearts for the worship of Allah they, the pious men, have been allowed to marry up to four women and have sex with an unlimited number of slave girls even if this provision may lead to the destruction of innocent children. […]
   DETAILS, 4th EDITION (where different): Re-published 2006, Website: www.debate. newton , E-mail: newton@ .
   DETAILS, 3rd EDITION: Published at Bend (Oregon, USA): The Berean Call, www.tbcorders. org/default. asp ; Copyright ©1995, 3rd edition March 2001, ISBN 0-88264-310-x.  68pp, soft covers, 15 x 21 centimetres (5 7/8 x 8 1/4 inches), contents, Arabic section, no index, endnotes (AUS$5 Free Australia Movement, PO Box 9091, Wyee, NSW, 2259, Australia.)
   ENDNOTES are to reference books of the Islamic religion.  Researchers are advised to buy the booklet.
   ANOTHER ENTRY on this Website is at: Submit / Reading [1995]

• 2600 years and still bound. Australia flag; 
   Self-published, By Kerry Adamson, ~ April 16, 1996
2600 YEARS AND STILL BOUND     By Kerry Adamson
   It was sad to read in the newspapers around April 16, 1966 that 4500 of Melbourne's Judaists (Jews) paid money towards setting up a religious boundary, called an eruv, for Sabbath.
   These Orthodox Judaists, grown men and women, still believe such man-made bondage that have led many Judaists to join groups such as the Karaites and Reform Judaism.
  [Picture] Pole perimeter: Dr Kloot, left, and Dr Danny Lamm of the Mizrachi organisation in Melbourne welcome the cable to mark their eruv.

Jewish community is at home with roll-out

WHILE Optus Vision has been dragged through the courts by local councils up and down the east coast over its attempts to lay its cable, it has struck up an alliance with one community which has greeted the company with open arms.
   Melbourne's Jewish community is so enthusiastic about the cable they are even contributing to the cost of running it on power poles through the city's south eastern suburbs.
   The community's support is because the cable will form an "eruv" for the estimated 45,000 Jews who live in and around the Caulfield, Glen Ira and St Kilda areas.
   An eruv is an essential part of life for orthodox Jews because it is the only area in which they are permitted to carry anything - including children or food - on the Jewish sabbath, between sundown on Friday and sundown on Saturday.
   Without an eruv they are virtually housebound for this period.
   The ancient tradition, which is believed to date back to King Solomon, is based on Jews remaining in their township for the duration of their sabbath, as far as possible. In a modern urban environment this presents problems - which is where the Optus cable comes in.
   While the cable's distinctive appearance is drawing furious opposition in some quarters, it suits the Jewish community's desire for a clear boundary.
   Power lines have been used but late last year a rabbinical ruling declared the existing eruv was invalid because the power lines were not regarded as continuous, a condition for an acceptable eruv.
   Peter Kloot, executive director of the Mizrachi Organisation, a Jewish community organisation, said the lack of an eruv was particularly inconvenient to the many people with young families.
   Dr Kloot said a clear delineation would enable them to go about on the sabbath without fear of contravening religious laws.
   The Council of Orthodox Synagogues of Victoria and the Mizrachi Organisation have formed Melbourne Eruv Pty Ltd, which has signed a deal with Optus Vision to construct three eruvim in Melbourne. The other two will be around Hawthorn and Templestowe.
   An Optus spokeswoman said her Sydney colleagues were also holding discussions with the Jewish community there about the possibility of repeating the exercise.

   Man-made rules in Judaism started to override God-given laws some time before 587 B.C. in both Judea and Babylon (near Baghdad). Babylon was the "Vatican" of Judaism long before Jesus preached, for about 1700 years until shortly after 1084 A.D.
   Presumably the various pagan rulers of Babylon, who permitted the Scribes (lawyers) to run autonomous communities, liked the idea of the Judaists' leaders giving their flock more than 500 self-effacing incredibly complex rules, that now cover every moment of a believer's life, waking and sleeping
   But other people around the Judaists disliked hundreds of other passages in the book of man-made rules, the Babylonian Talmud, even though it is described as "divine law," (plus other books), such as:
   Promises and oaths are cancelled in advance annually, somehow moved to Yom Kippur, i.e., the Day of Atonement, by the sung Kol Nidre (see Talmud book Nedarim, 23 a - 23 b. translated in Epstein, I., editor, The Babylonian Talmud, 1935, London, Soncino Press, pp 67-8)
   "Though it is forbidden to rob the heathen …. the offence was non-actionable." (footnote to Sanhedrin, p 383 of above)
   "Rab Judah said in Rab's name: One who returns a lost article to a Cuthean. [originally meant heathen) – concerning him Scripture sayeth, … The Lord will not spare him (Talmud, Sanhedrin, 76 b, p 517, misusing Bible, Deuteronomy 29.20)
   "The best among the Gentiles deserves to be killed" (Rabbi Simon ben Yohai, see Jewish Encyclopedia, page 617)
   Does this include children in Lebanon, hit by Israeli rockets this week? Or are they just victims of war – well outside the UN-sanctioned boundaries of modern Israel?
   "When a grown-up man has intercourse with a little girl it is nothing…" (Talmud, Kethuboth, 11 b, p 58)
   "He who loves his wife… and leads his children in the right path, and marries them just before they attain puberty - of him Scripture saith. And thou shalt know that thy tabernacle shall be in peace and thou shalt visit thy habitation, and shalt not sin (Sanhedrin, 76 b, p 517, misusing Bible, Job 5:241. (pronounced Johb)
   The Talmud is the teachings of the Scribes and Pharisees, the Traditions of the Elders.
   'My people, go you out of the midst of her [Babylon]," wrote Jeremiah about 626 B.C. (Bible, Jeremiah 51:45, and repeated in the 1st Century AD. (Revelation-Apocalypse 18:4).
   BUT THE MAJORITY AND THE SCRIBES STAYED until driven out about 1084 A.D. Those who didn't join other religions or become agnostics didn't obey Jeremiah, and their religious followers, mainly the descendants of the converted Khazars of the Volga River region of south Russia, remain in the Babylonish faith because: "There is greater stringency in respect to the teachings of the scribes than in respect to the Torah [Bible]." (Sanhedrin, 88 b, p 587). Let us hope many of them free themselves.
[~ Apr 16, 1996]
• Marlon Brando backflips after telling truth about Hollywood  United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   Self-published by Kerry Adamson, September 5, 1996


after telling truth about Hollywood
By Kerry Adamson                                                             5 September 1996
   Marion Brando, dual Academy Award winner, has apologised for saying this year that Hollywood was run by Jews=Judaists. (The West Australian, Friday August 30, 1966, Today page 3)
   Other famous people who have apologised after criticising Judaism include Henry Ford –after he found problems getting finance to retool for a change of car model. Similarly, Brando has had recent problems with getting sufficient funding for a film in Ireland (Ibid = same as last reference).
   Brando has gone even further; he is now reported as being a "crusader for race relations" (Sunday Times, Perth, September 1, 1996, p 3, see p 8), and has been posing with Australian Aborigines and a didgeridoo.
   THREAT OF LIVING HELL: The West Australian, April 9, 1996, page 2, had reported: "The Jewish Defence League … vowed to make the rest of Brando's life 'a living hell' after Brando appeared on Cable News Network's Larry King Live on Friday night [sic; it was Good Friday !].
   "In the interview, Brando, 72, denounced what he said was a Jewish-run movie establishment that had exploited other racial and ethnic stereotypes."
   He was quoted as saying: "Hollywood is run by Jews, owned by Jews and they should have a greater sensitivity." A colleague, however, said that Brando was really pro-Judaist and pro-Israel.
   IS HOLLYWOOD RUN BY JEWS? In his book that won a 1988 Theatre Library Association Award, U.S. academic Neal Gabler states that from 1915, when Carl Laemmle wrested control of Universal Pictures from the other investors, and became "King of the Movie Renters," the Jews controlled Hollywood (Neal Gabler, An Empire of their Own, 1989, New York, Anchor-Doubleday, Dewey Number 384.8'09, p 64, para 2).
   Judaist author the novelist Stephen Birmingham wrote in his trilogy about American Judaists: "… the motion picture business … an almost exclusively Eastern European business ,.." (Stephen Birmingham, The Rest of Us, 1987, London, Futura-Macdonald, p 88) "… by the 1920s much of the business end of show business was in Jewish hands [and] … much of the "Prohibition liquor trade was in Jewish hands …" (p 182) "… the motion picture business … had become a heavily Jewish industry …" (p 183) "Hollywood's Jewish moguls … by the 1920s had become the most powerful purveyors of mass culture in America …"(p 184).
   The founders of the Hollywood film studios were of Eastern European Judaist origins (Gabler, pp 1, 3-4), i.e., presumably of Khazar descent, mother tongue probably Yiddish: Universal Pictures: Carl Laemmle, born 1867 Laupheim, s-w Germany; Paramount Pictures: Adolph Zukor, b. in Tokay grape district of Hungary, brought up by rabbinical scholar; Fox Film Corporation: William Fox, son of Hungarian-Judaist immigrants; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer: Louis B. Mayer, previously a Russian junkman, would not say where or when born (Gabler, p 399), Sam Goldwyn, whose name was formerly Goldfish (p 109); Warner Brothers: Benjamin Warner, b, Poland; Columbia Pictures: Harry Cohn, father German Jew tailor, mother Russian Jewess from the Pale (p 155).
   ARE THE FILM STARS JUDAISTS? Many film stars are of Judaist descent, probably of Khazar origin, with names changed, some made to look Anglo-Celtish, e.g., Kirk Douglas.
   Isidore Baline became Irving Berlin, Theodosia Goodman >Theda Bara, Benjamin Kubelsky >Jack Benny, Fanny Borach >Fanny Brice, Ehrich Weiss >Harry Houdini, Asa Yoelson >Al Jolson, Sonia Kalish >Sophie Tucker, Nathan Birnbaum >George Burns [died this year], Isidor Iskowitch >Eddie Kantor, Catherine Holzman >Libby Holman "… Eastern European Jews …" (Birmingham, p 180)
   Theda Bara's Jewishness was a closely-guarded secret… Douglas Fairbanks's mother had been Jewish." (p 184) Irving Lahrheim became Bert Lahr, Emmanuel Goldberg >Edward G. Robinson, Pauline Levee >Paulette Goddard, Lee Jacob >Lee J. Cobb (see p 184). "Eddy Cantor, Jack Benny, Fanny Brice, the Marx Brothers … Jews…" (p 184).
   "These early film pioneers were kept out of social clubs, and had problems getting finance from the then Wall Street "Establishment," but they and others over many years have changed all that!
   WAS OPPOSITION REASONABLE, OR DISCRIMINATORY? The early U.S. opposition to Judaism had a basis in fairness, including a wish to keep America for the Americans. Then, when some Judaists became wealthy and paraded their wealth, jealousy added to the antipathy of some people (read Walter Blumenthal—Walter Lippmann, March 3, 1922, quoted in Ronald Steel, Walter Lippmann and the American Century, (New York, 1980), p 192; see Gabler, pp 237, 456). Were there more serious reasons for antipathy?
   BEST OF THE NON-JEWS DESERVE DEATH. "The best among the Gentiles deserves to be killed" (Rabbi Simon ben Yohai, see Jewish Encyclopedia, page 617)
   Does this include children in Lebanon, hit by Israeli rockets in April 1996? Or are they just victims of war, well outside the UN-sanctioned boundaries of modern Israel? Why are Israeli troops occupying a strip of Lebanon, which they invaded in 1982? (see Jack Berstein and Len Martin, The life of an American Jew in … Israel, 1984, Detroit Lakes Michigan, Pro-American Press.) Iraq was rightly forced to give up Kuwait which it had seized. But Indonesia has not been forced to hand back East Timor, seized in 1975. On September 3 and 4 this year Iraq was hit without warning by 27 U.S. cruise missiles for an alleged attack on a Kurdish village inside its borders; Israel and Indonesia are still killing villagers outside their borders, but no U.S. attack comes.
   "Rab Judah said in Rab's name: One who returns a lost article to a Cuthean. [originally meant heathen]– concerning him Scripture sayeth, … The Lord will not spare him." (Talmud, Sanhedrin, 76 b, p 517. misusing Bible, Deuteronomy 29:20)
   Well, in spite of years of peace talks, U.N. resolutions, and U.S. funds and weapons being poured in, a lot of land has not been handed back to the indigenous people of Palestine. Are late August's Israeli plans to erect 1800 more home units on the West Bank a symbol that the Israelis will use the widest of the variant Bible accounts of the boundaries, i.e., seize from the Mediterranean Sea to the Euphrates River in Iraq, and include from Lebanon to the Red Sea? Ah, but land is not an "article."
   "Though it is forbidden to rob the heathen … the offence was non-actionable." (footnote to Sanhedrin, p 388 of above)
   See above. Talmudists must be blood brothers in double-think to criminals, politicians etc!
   Promises and oaths are cancelled in advance annually, somehow moved to Yom Kippur, i.e., the Day of Atonement, by the sung Kol Nidre (see Talmud book Nedarim, 23 a - 23 b, translated in Epstein, I., editor, The Babylonian Talmud, 1935, London, Soncino Press, pp 67-8)
   I wonder if this includes the promises made under Keating's and Howard's workplace agreements! Or, Clinton's and Major's election promises! Well, if breaking oaths is approved by the Talmud in defiance of the Bible's Ten Commandments, what about worshipping false gods and idols?
   WORSHIP OF FALSE GOD APPROVED BY THE TALMUD. "Our Mishnah is in accordance with the view that Molech worship is not idolatry." (Talmud, Sanhedrin 64a, p 438)
   Further reading: BERSTEIN, Jack (former Israeli), and MARTIN, Len, The life of an American Jew in… Israel, 1984, Detroit Lakes, Michigan, Pro-American Press)
BIRMINGHAM, Stephen, Our crowd: The great Jewish families of New York, ©1967, 1985, London, Futura, a division of Macdonald & Co; The Grandees: America's Sephardic elite, ©1971, 1986, ditto; The rest of us: The rise of America's Eastern European Jews, ©1984, 1987, ditto.
DILLING, Elizabeth, The plot against Christianity, c. 1950, U.S.A.
FREEDMAN, Benjamin H, Facts are facts, 1955, New York, self-published.
GABLER, Neal, An Empire of their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood, 1989, New York, Anchor-Doubleday, Dewey Number 384.8'09
GRIFFIN, Des, Anti-Semitism and the Babylonian connection, 1992, Clackamas, Oregon, USA, Emissary Publications.
KOESTLER, Arthur, The thirteenth tribe: The Khazar empire and its heritage, ©1976, originally London, Hutchinson, republished New York, Random House; 947.9'01.
REED, Douglas, The controversy of Zion, init 1978, 1985, Bullsbrook, W.A., Veritas (obtainable: PO Box 20, Bullsbrook, WA, 6084, Australia)
SOFFER, Yonna (former Israeli), Justice! How much? ©1990, Guildford WA, Bookmark (obtainable from The Advertiser, Box 583, Morley, WA, 6943).#
[Sep 5, 96]

• How old is racism? Australia flag; 
   Self-published, By Kerry Adamson, September 6, 1996
By Kerry Adamson                                                               6 September 1996

   Racism, discrimination, and persecution have been on this planet for thousands of years, it seems from archaeology and documentary evidence, some of which follows.

   "The best among the Gentiles deserves to be killed" (Rabbi Simon ben Yohai, see Jewish Encyclopedia, page 617)
   "Though it is forbidden to rob the heathen … the offence was non-actionable." (Epstein, I., editor of the translation. The Babylonian Talmud, 1935, London, Soncino Press, footnote to the book Sanhedrin. p 388)
   Promises and oaths are cancelled in advance annually, somehow moved to Yom Kippur, i.e., the Day of Atonement, by the sung Kol Nidre (see ibid, Talmud book Nedarim, 23a-23b, pp 67-8)
   THE RACISM OF JUDAISM STARTED MORE THAN 2500 YEARS AGO. In Judaism man-made rules and irrational separation from and opposition to their neighbours started to override God-given laws years before 587 B.C. in both Judea (southern Palestine, Near East, Asia) and Babylon (near Baghdad, Iraq, Near East).
   Far from weeping by the rivers of Babylon, as the popular song, hymns, and Bible Psalm 137 / 136 has it, there was a prosperous Judaist community at Babylon before and after the "Exile" (587-537 BC), and the pagan city evidently had an evil grip on the "Chosen People" BEFORE the "Babylonian captivity."
   "My people, go you out of the midst of her [Babylon]," wrote Jeremiah about 626 B.C. (Bible, Jeremiah 51:45), i.e., well before the so-called Exile, and repeated in the 1st Century A.D. (Revelation-Apocalypse 18:4). In reality, the Judaists did NOT leave Babylon (they were forced out around the year AD 1084); and ever since, those who follow the Talmudic rabbis have never, in their MINDS, left Babylon.
   The deportation of 587 BC was possibly only a secondary deportation of the leadership and skilled artisans, not the majority of the population as was previously understood in most Western European Churches and schools. Besides economic emigration, Israelites and Judahites were deported by conquerors before the "Exile." one of the first recorded being Tiglath-Pilaser III, who reigned 745-727 BC, i.e. about 200 years before the Exile (Bible, 2 Kings 15:29); see also Sargon 722-705 BC (2 Kings 17:6); Sargon's son Sennacherib claimed to have captured 200,150 people during the war of independence of King Hezekiah in 701 BC (John L McKenzie, Dictionary of the Bible, 1968, London, Geoffrey Chapman, page 254b); Esarhaddon 681-668 BC (Bible, Ezra 4:2).
   LANDOWNERS AND FINANCIERS IN BABYLON, AND RABBI COLLEGES. The Judaists are shown in Babylonian records as landowners and moneylenders (McKenzie 1968, p 255 a), and this community and the Talmudic Colleges there were the powerhouse of Judaism long before Jesus preached, continuing right through while Europe went through the Dark Ages of invasions and into the early Middle Ages (see Ibid) until shortly after 1084 A.D.
   The various rulers and conquerors of Babylon permitted the Scribes (lawyers) and Pharisees there to run self-ruling communities, which ran rabbi schools for boys to learn their teachings, called the Traditions of the Elders, and the Teachings of the Scribes. When the Palestinian colleges were forcibly destroyed after the Bar-Kokhba "messiah" was beaten in 135 A.D., Babylonian colleges became the "Vatican" of Judaism. Even when Arabic became one of the main languages of the Talmudic colleges, Judaist communities around the world kept sending difficult cases to Babylon for decisions, and the decisions were Talmudic.
   GENTILES STARTED PERSECUTIONS. The non-Judaist rulers, by their persecutions, have caused some of the Judaist hatred. For example, although the Bible shows that pagan statues were worshipped in ancient Israel and Judah for hundreds of years, when a non-Canaanite god, the Greek god Zeus, was ordered to be worshipped in Jerusalem in 167 BC, it started a Judahite war of independence, the rise of the Maccabees who became rulers, and their seizure of Jerusalem in 141 BC, which was independent until 63 BC when Pompey conquered it. Persecutions led to another Judahite uprising in AD 66, until Titus destroyed Jerusalem in the year 70 and Masada fell in 73. In 115 Trajan suppressed another Judahite uprising, and as stated elsewhere, from 132 the Bar-Kokhba freedom fight lasted until 135, the year of another destruction of Jerusalem and the "Final" Diaspora (see Frances Clapham & Fay Franklin, Factbook of History, 1990, London, Rainbow Books, p 19b).
   Many Judaists have tried to reform the religion, and some such attempts end in the foundation of new religions, such as Christianity, and the Karaites. In modern times we have some making an attempt to adopt reform, while remaining "Jews" in Liberal Judaism and Reform Judaism.
   Further reading; DILLING, Elizabeth, The plot against Christianity, c. 1950, U.S.A.
FREEDMAN, Benjamin H, Facts are facts, 1955, New York, self-published.
GRIFFIN, Des, Anti-Semitism and the Babylonian connection, 1992, Clackamas (Oregon USA), Emissary.
KOESTLER, Arthur, The thirteenth tribe: The Khazar empire and its heritage. ©1976, originally London, Hutchinson, republished New York, Random House; 947.9'01.
REED, Douglas, The controversy of Sion, init 1978, 1985, Bullsbrook, W.A., Veritas (obtainable: PO Box 20, Bullsbrook, WA, 6084, Australia).
SOFFER. Yonna. Justice! How much? 1990. Guildford WA, Bookmark (obtainable from: PO Box 583, Morley. WA, 6943).
[Sep 6, 1996]

• 1996 - Alarm Bells in the Desert  Saudi Arabia flag;  United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   Australian Reader's Digest, www.readers au , readersdigest. com , pp 153-158, issue of October 1996
Can Saudi Arabia, a major provider of the West's oil imports, withstand Islamic extremism?

Alarm Bells in the Desert

I T is LATE in the evening when a large tanker truck pulls into the car park next to Khobar Towers Building 131 in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The apartment complex houses hundreds of the estimated 5000 American troops stationed in the desert kingdom.
   Traditionally, Saudi Arabia has been regarded as a "very, very safe place to be," in the words of former US Ambassador Ray Mabus. But there have been rumblings of discontent lately. Rabble-rousing Islamic preachers have bitterly attacked the royal family for its alliance with American "unbelievers."
   They have demanded a strict Islamic government to replace the corrupt house of Saud. And months before, after a mysterious organisation called the Islamic Movement for Change threatened to "evict" Americans from the sacred soil of the kingdom, a bomb blast at a US military facility in Riyadh left five Americans dead. Although security in Dhahran has been tightened since that attack, the tanker truck is able to approach to within 35 metres of the Khobar Towers. Just before 10 p.m. on June 25, 1996, it explodes in a massive blast, ripping off one side of the building. This time, 19 Americans are killed, and hundreds of others injured.
   The two bomb attacks delivered a frightening message: one of the most dangerous risks facing the West in the Persian Gulf may no longer be Iraq's Saddam Hussein or Iran's ayatollahs, but the possible collapse of the nation that pumps some 13 per cent of its oil imports, and which for nearly half a century has been one of its closest allies.
   Twenty years ago Saudi Arabia enjoyed oil wealth so vast it seemed able to buy all the security it could ever want. Today the same country is beset by endemic corruption, gargantuan debt and a gathering wave of Islamic extremism.
   "The government is unravelling," warns Saäd Aburish, author of The Rise, Corruption and Coming Fall of the House of Saud. Aburish predicts the royal regime will disintegrate before the year 2000.
   Decades of uncontrolled spending and waste have wreaked havoc with the kingdom's finances. Saudi Arabia's once-colossal cash reserves have shrunk by more than two-thirds, from $42 billion in 1981 to $13 billion today. Meanwhile, domestic debt has ballooned to nearly $131 billion, as per-capita income for the kingdom's 17 million subjects has declined from about $17,000 in 1982 to under $10,000 in 1995. Unemployment among those who have recently left school hovers around 25 per cent.
   Where has all the money gone? Tens of billions of dollars have been squandered on padded contracts, institutionalised bribery and the lavish life of the Saudi royal family. Increasingly, a royal government that thought its oil income was a permanent financial gusher is facing harsh budgetary constraints and opposition to arbitrary rule.
   Indeed, many Saudis regard the ruling family as little better than conquerors. The nation's widely scattered regions were brought together in the early twentieth century by a minor sheik named Ibn Saud, who ruthlessly crushed the resistance of neighbouring tribes. American drillers began to extract oil in the 1930s, but as the kingdom grew in affluence, members of the royal family dominated the government and economy.
   Following the oil crisis of 1973, oil prices quadrupled. New roads, ports, seaports, industrial centres and universities were built at an astonishing rate. Military procurers had carte blanche to purchase the most advanced weapons, many of which the country's army was unable to use.
   Truly bizarre decisions were made with absolutely no regard for cost. For instance, huge sums were spent to pump underground water into the desert to irrigate land to grow wheat. When it was learned that the cost of production was more than three times the world price, the government offered lavish subsidies to farmers.
   The Saudi government, in fact, has crafted the most generous welfare system in the world. All education up to the postdoctoral level is free. Saudis are entitled to free land and can take advantage of generous business start-up loans. Water and electricity are subsidised, health care is free and there is no income tax.
   At the top, some 6000 members of the ruling family enjoy a life of spectacular opulence. The royal family's budget is believed to run into billions of dollars a year. Wealth is distributed at the discretion of King Fahd, whose estimated private assets total at least $13 billion. The king reportedly owns seven palaces in Saudi Arabia, others in Spain, France and Switzerland, and a private Boeing 747 fitted with a sauna, chandeliers, a lift and gold bathroom fixtures.
   Members of the royal clan receive generous "salaries" for doing little or no work. Princes receive on average $40,000 per month plus cars and other benefits. And every year, as sons and grandsons of princes come of age, an ever-growing army of parasitic hands expects handouts from the royal exchequer. Family members also skim billions from countless official projects. Favoured Saudi princes receive free allocations of oil, which they can trade at vast profit. One of King Fahd's sons reportedly received millions of dollars in commissions for his part in a large telecommunications deal.
   Most lucrative for the royal grafters are military contracts, which can easily bring in billions of dollars. Critics allege that Prince Sultan, second in line to the throne, receives a standard commission of 20 per cent on most arms contracts.
   Despite its wealth, Saudi Arabia has only severely limited free speech, no freedom of assembly, no political parties and no elections. Prisoners may be detained indefinitely, denied legal representation, subjected to prolonged physical abuse and condemned to death without a fair trial.
   Women are not allowed to drive and may not leave the country without written permission from a male relative. After the Gulf War, women who quietly drove through Riyadh were denounced by religious leaders as "whores, prostitutes, sinners."
   Religious police known as mutawaeen prowl the streets with the power to detain people they deem guilty of religious offences, such as improper dress or failure to report for prayer. Practice of religions other than Islam is forbidden. a simple Christmas tree is subject to confiscation.
   "Our educational systems are factories of fundamentalism," says one Saudi engineer who recently moved his family out of Saudi Arabia to a neighbouring Gulf country. "Teachers and students are taken up in an Islamic fervour bordering on madness. They teach hatred for Christians and Jews."
   While the kingdom has smothered ordinary Saudis, it has sowed a fertile field for dissidents such as Muhammad al-Mass'ari, who cloak their Islamic agenda in democratic rhetoric. Deeply religious, Mass'ari studied physics in Germany and became head of the physics department at Riyadh University. "The regime has nothing to do with Islam," he says. "Saudi Arabia is just a family business where corruption is the rule."
   Mass'ari helped to found the Committee for the Defence of Legitimate Rights, an organisation dedicated to "democratic" reform and to advancing the cause of strict Islamic rule. Soon afterwards, Mass'ari was arrested. For weeks he was beaten in an effort to make him inform on his colleagues. After six months, Mass'ari was released. In early 1994, supporters helped him escape to London, where he is now the most prominent dissident outside Saudi Arabia.
   Mass'ari insists that his movement seeks democracy and respect for human rights. "We want an elected, accountable leader and government, and an independent judiciary," he says. Yet his concept of "democracy" is deceptive. He claims to support free speech, for instance, but he also believes the law should punish people who "insult" others' religions.
   Saudi Arabia's main worries may come from within - but they will quickly become the world's problems if they are allowed to fester. If the regime in Saudi Arabia collapses, the whole peninsula could revert to a squabbling collection of ministates that would attract predatory neighbours, such as Iran and Iraq.
   For the next three or four decades, 30 per cent of the world's oil will continue to come out of the Gulf. A Saudi Arabia ruled by Islamic extremists would make it virtually impossible for the West to counter threats by Iraq or Iran with ground troops. Says Robert Satloff, executive director of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, "The West could face an oil shock that would dwarf the disruptions of the 1970s."
   The United States has committed itself to the defence of the West's Arab allies in the Gulf region. "We are prepared to fight a war to defend it," Secretary of Defence William Perry declared in Riyadh last January. However, that assurance may not be enough to stave off what could be a grave threat to the region's stability - a political shake-up in Saudi Arabia.
   Saudi officials dismiss Western calls for democratic reforms as "intellectual arrogance" that is insensitive to their cultural tradition. "There is nothing anyone outside can do to help the royal family stay in power if it loses touch with the Saudi people," says Prince Bandar bin Sultan, the Saudi ambassador to the US. "We have nothing to be ashamed or embarrassed about."
   While Saudi rulers seem smugly indifferent to the urgent need for reform, their Kuwaiti neighbours have already shown that democracy can flourish in a country where the royal government is practically a mirror image of Saudi Arabia's. In free elections in 1992, opposition candidates won 36 of the 50 seats in the National Assembly and were later appointed to six of 15 cabinet positions.
   The Assembly has the power to approve the national budget and the authority to investigate government wrongdoing. Parliamentary committees are investigating the alleged skimming of profits of the national oil tanker company.
   On the streets of Kuwait, meanwhile, uninhibited criticism of the ruling family is standard fare, and the uncensored press is filled with public debates about proposed tax increases and cases of alleged vote-buying and bribery. Boasts Kuwaiti journalist Kholoud al-Fili, "We are the beachhead of democracy in the Arabian peninsula."
   If the Saudi government is to survive, say a wide spectrum of critics, arms expenditures must be drastically cut, corruption curtailed and the bloated welfare state scaled back. The lucrative monopolies to the royal family should be broken up, and education must be taken out of the hands of religious zealots.
   "The Saudi regime has to allow people to exercise their fundamental rights, including the right to form organisations advocating political change and fiscal accountability," says Joe Stork, Middle East advocacy director for Human Rights Watch in Washington. "People have a right to know where their money is going.
   The bomb that destroyed Khobar Towers Building 131 was a warning that Saudi Arabia is in deep trouble, an announcement that its enormous wealth can no longer protect it the trouble and terrorism that have racked other Middle East countries. An alarm bell is ringing in the desert kingdom. The West had better start listening.
   [RECAPITULATION: [p 154] Decades of uncontrolled spending and waste have wreaked havoc with the kingdom's finances. Saudi Arabia's once-colossal cash reserves have shrunk by more than two-thirds, from $42 billion in 1981 to $13 billion today. Meanwhile, domestic debt has ballooned to nearly $131 billion, as per-capita income for the kingdom's 17 million subjects has declined from about $17,000 in 1982 to under $10,000 in 1995. Unemployment among those who have recently left school hovers around 25 per cent. […]
   [p 156 a] … Saudi Arabia has only severely limited free speech, no freedom of assembly, no political parties and no elections. Prisoners may be detained indefinitely, denied legal representation, subjected to prolonged physical abuse and condemned to death without a fair trial. […]
   [p 156] Women are not allowed to drive and may not leave the country without written permission from a male relative. After the Gulf War, women who quietly drove through Riyadh were denounced by religious leaders as "whores, prostitutes, sinners."
   Religious police known as mutawaeen prowl the streets with the power to detain people they deem guilty of religious offences, such as improper dress or failure to report for prayer. Practice of religions other than Islam is forbidden. a simple Christmas tree is subject to confiscation. […]
   [pp 156-7]… "Teachers and students are taken up in an Islamic fervour bordering on madness. They teach hatred for Christians and Jews." RECAP. ENDS.]
   [DOCTRINE: 2:193 (or 2:189):- … Fight the unbelievers until no other religion except Islam is left.
   5:51 (or 5:56):- O you who believe! do not take the Jews and the Christians for friends; they are friends of each other; and whoever amongst you takes them for a friend, then surely he is one of them; surely Allah does not guide the unjust people. < dept/MSA/ quran/005. qmt.html# 005.051 >
   5:59-60 (or 5:64-65):- O people of the Book! … some of them hath he changed into apes and swine …
   5:72 (or 5:76):- Infidels now are they who say, 'God is the Messiah, Son of Mary.'
   5:82 (or 5:85):- Of all men thou wilt certainly find the Jews, and those who join other gods with God, to be the most intense in hatred of those who believe; and thou shalt certainly find those to be nearest in affection to them who say, 'We are Christians.' …
   8:12:- … I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them.
   9:29:- Make war upon such of those to whom the Scriptures have been given … until they pay tribute out of hand, and they be humbled.
   9:30:- And the Jews say: Uzair [Ezra] is the son of Allah; and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah; these are the words of their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who disbelieved before; may Allah destroy them; how they are turned away! (See also 19.88-93)
   33:26-27:- And He caused those of the people of the Book (the Jews), who had aided the confederates, … And He gave you their land, and their dwellings, and their wealth, for an heritage –even a land on which ye had never set foot: for the might of God is equal to all things. DOCTRINE ENDS.] [issue Oct 1996]

• Rengasdengklok.  [1997 Multiculturalism –Objection to being disturbed; Mobs wreck houses, shops, churches, Buddhist monasteries, 26 vehicles.]  


   Book Indonesia in the Soeharto Years, John H. McGlynn, Oscar Motuloh, Suzanne Charlé, Jeffrey Hadler, Bambang Bujono, Margaret Glade Agusta, Gedsiri Suhartono, and about 50 essayists, and 125 photographers, © Copyright and Published by Lontar Foundation, Jakarta; page 346, (orig. 2005) 2007 edition.
   RENGASDENGKLOK, West Java, Indonesia –
An argument between a group of young Muslims waking residents for the pre-dawn meal of the Ramadhan fasting month around 2:30 A.M. on Friday, January 31, 1997, and a forty-nine-year-old woman of Chinese descent, who objected to having her sleep disturbed, exploded into a rampage of looting and burning in the West Java city of Rengasdengklok.
   Crowds of up to 3,000 rioters damaged or burned seventy-six houses, seventy-two shops, three churches and two Buddhist monasteries, as well as at least twenty-six cars and other vehicles.
   It was not until twelve hours later that 500 soldiers and 300 police officers were able to contain the unrest.
   Counterclockwise from right:  Security personnel rest outside a Muslim-owned store.  Shop owners protect themselves against sectarian violence by proclaiming, "We are Muslims."  At a Chinese temple, the Buddha is lynched. #

   [KORAN: 7:4 (or 7:3):- How many cities have We destroyed! … {and click} 47:13 (or 47:14).
   9:34-35:- 34.  O ye who believe!  There are indeed many among the priests and anchorites, who in falsehood devour the wealth of men and hinder (them) from the Way of Allah. …
   57:27:- … Jesus … Evangel … but as to the monastic life, they invented it themselves. … many of them are rebellious transgressors. DOCTRINE ENDS.]
   [HADITH: 4, 53:386:- Narrated Jubair bin Haiya: Umar sent the Muslims to the great countries to fight the pagans.  When Al-Hurmuzan embraced Islam, Umar said to him. "I would like to consult you regarding these countries which I intend to invade." […] Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah Alone or give Jizya (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says:– "Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master." […] TRADITION ENDS.]
[(orig. 2005) 2007 edition. Actual events started: Jan 31, 1997]

• The Religion of Peace (And be Quiet !) 

The Religion of Peace (And be Quiet !)

   Derafsh Kaviyani, , List as June 30, 1998 (copyright 1998-2010)
   Qur’an 3:150:- Soon We shall strike terror into the hearts of the Infidels, for that they joined companions with Allah, for which He had sent no authority:  their abode will be in the Fire!
   Qur’an 7:3:- Little do you remember My warning.  How many towns have We destroyed as a raid by night?  Our punishment took them suddenly while they slept for their afternoon rest.  Our terror came to them; Our punishment overtook them.
   Qur’an 8:12:- I shall terrorize the infidels.  So wound their bodies and incapacitate them because they oppose Allah and His Apostle.
   Qur’an 8:57:- If you gain mastery over them in battle, inflict such a defeat as would terrorize them, so that they would learn a lesson and be warned.
   Qur’an 8:67:- It is not fitting for any prophet to have prisoners until he has made a great slaughter in the land.
   Qur’an 33:26:- Allah made the Jews leave their homes by terrorizing them so that you killed some and made many captive.  And He made you inherit their lands, their homes, and their wealth.  He gave you a country you had not traversed before.
   Qur’an 33:60-61:- Truly, if the Hypocrites stir up sedition, if the agitators in the City do not desist, We shall urge you to go against them and set you over them.  Then they will not be able to stay as your neighbours for any length of time.  They shall have a curse on them. Whenever they are found, they shall be seized and slain without mercy – a fierce slaughter – murdered, a horrible murdering.
   Qur’an 59:2:- It was Allah who drove the {Jewish} People of the Book from their homes and into exile.  They refused to believe and imagined that their strongholds would protect them against Allah.  But Allah came at them from where they did not suspect, and filled their hearts with terror.  Their homes were destroyed.  So learn a lesson, O men who have eyes.  This is My warning – they shall taste the torment of Fire.
---------- ---------- ----------
   Sahih Bukhari is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad, also known as the sunnah.  The reports of the Prophet’s sayings and deeds are called ahadith.  Bukhari lived a couple of centuries after the Prophet’s death and worked extremely hard to collect his ahadith.  Each report in his collection was checked for compatibility with the Qur’an, and the veracity of the chain of reporters had to be painstakingly established.  Bukhari’s collection is recognized by the overwhelming majority of the Muslim world to be one of the most authentic collections of the Sunnah of the Prophet.

   Sahih Bukhari: Volume 4 Book 52 No. 220:- Allah’s Apostle said, ‘I have been made victorious with terror.’
   Bukhari: V 4 B 52 N 256:- The Prophet passed by and was asked whether it was permissible to attack infidels at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger.  The Prophet replied, "Their women and children are from them."
   Bukhari: V 5 B 59 N 333:- Az-Zubair said, "I attacked him with my spear and pierced his eye.  I put my foot over his body to pull the weapon out, but even then I had to use great force.  Later on Allah’s Apostle asked me for that spear and I gave it to him."
   Bukhari: V 5 B 59 N 512:- The Prophet offered the Fajr Prayer {Prayer of Fear} near Khaybar when it was still dark.  He said, "Allahu-Akbar!" {Allah is Greatest}.  "Khaybar is destroyed, for whenever we approach a hostile nation to fight, then evil will be the morning for those who have been warned."  Then the inhabitants came out running on their roads.  The Prophet had their men killed; their children and woman were taken as captives.
   Bukhari:V 5 B 59 N 512:- The Prophet had their men killed, their children and woman taken captive.
   Bukhari: V 9 B 87 N 127:- The Prophet said, "I have been given the keys of eloquent speech and given victory with terror."
---------- ---------- ----------
   This biography of Muhammad - a Sira - was written by Ibn Ishaq (Ebn-e Esshaagh), an Arab who lived in the century after Muhammad did, dying around 151 AH (that is, about 773 AD). It is one of the few full biographies of the Prophet.

   Ishaq: 281:- The Raid on Waddan was the first Maghazi {invasion}.  The Expedition of Harith was second.  They encountered a large number of Quraysh in the Hijaz.  Abu Bakr composed a poem about the raid:  "When we called them to the truth they turned their backs and howled like bitches.  Allah’s punishment on them will not tarry.  I swear by the Lord of Camels {Allah?} that I am no perjurer.  A valiant band will descend upon the Quraysh which will leave women husbandless.  It will leave men dead, with vultures wheeling round.  It will not spare the infidels."
   Ishaq: 301:- As the Muslims were laying their hands on as many prisoners as they could catch, the Prophet saw disapproval in the face of Sa‘d.  He said, "Why are you upset by the taking of captives?"  Sa‘d replied, "This was the first defeat inflicted by Allah on the infidels.  Slaughtering the prisoners would have been more pleasing to me than sparing them."
   Ishaq: 304:- I cut off Abu Jahl’s head and brought it to the Messenger.  O Allah’s Prophet, this is the head of the enemy of Allah.   Muhammad said, Praise be to Allah.
   Ishaq: 315:- It was so criminal, men could hardly imagine it.  Muhammad was ennobled because of the bloody fighting.  I swear we shall never lack soldiers, nor army leaders.  Driving before us infidels until we subdue them with a halter above their noses and a branding iron.  We will drive them to the ends of the earth.  We will pursue them on horse and on foot.  We will never deviate from fighting in our cause.  We will bring upon the infidels the fate of the Ad and Jurhum.  Any people that disobey Muhammad will pay for it.  If you do not surrender to Islam, then you will live to regret it.  You will be shamed in Hell, forced to wear a garment of molten pitch forever!
   Ishaq: 326:- If you come upon them, deal so forcibly as to terrify those who would follow, that they may be warned.  Make a severe example of them by terrorizing Allah’s enemies.
   Ishaq: 326:- Allah said, No Prophet before Muhammad took booty from his enemy nor prisoners for ransom.  Muhammad said, I was made victorious with terror.  The earth was made a place for me to clean.  I was given the most powerful words.  Booty was made lawful for me.  I was given the power to intercede.  These five privileges were awarded to no prophet before me.
   Ishaq: 327:- Allah said, A prophet must slaughter before collecting captives.  A slaughtered enemy is driven from the land.  Muhammad, you craved the desires of this world, its goods and the ransom captives would bring.  But Allah desires killing them to manifest the religion.
   Ishaq: 517:- Khaybar was stormed by the Apostle’s squadron, fully armed, powerful and strong.  It brought certain humiliation with Muslim men in its midst.  We attacked and they met their doom.  Muhammad conquered the Jews in fighting that day as they opened their eyes to our dust.
   Ishaq: 576:- Allah and His servant overwhelmed every coward.  Allah honored us and made our religion victorious.  We were glorified and destroyed them all.  Allah humiliated them in the worship of Satan.  By what our Apostle recites from the Book and by our swift horses, I liked the punishment the infidels received.  Killing them was sweeter than drink.  We galloped among them panting for the spoil.  With our loud-voiced army, the Apostle’s squadron advanced into the fray.
   Ishaq: 580:- Our strong warriors obey his orders to the letter.  By us Allah’s religion is undeniably strong.  You would think when our horses gallop with bits in their mouths that the sounds of demons are among them.  The day we trod down the unbelievers there was no deviation or turning from the Apostle’s order.  During the battle the people heard our exhortations to fight and the smashing of skulls by swords that sent heads flying.  We severed necks with a warrior’s blow.  Often we have left the slain cut to pieces and a widow crying alas over her mutilated husband.  ’Tis Allah, not man we seek to please.
   Ishaq: 588:- When the Apostle descends on your land none of your people will be left when he leaves.
   Copyright © 1998 - © 2010 Derafsh Kaviyani.  All Rights Reserved. #

   [WEBPAGE'S LINKS: English Articles. Home. Persian Articles (Parsi). Search The Site. Subscribe To Mailing List. Contact Us: . ENDS.]
[Found early May 2010. List as June 30,1998]

• 1998 - License To Kill. Usama bin Ladin's Declaration of Jihad.  Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom of, flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  /  Saudi Arabia flag; 

License To Kill. Usama bin Ladin’s Declaration of Jihad

   Foreign Affairs, as found (Feb 18, '07) on http://descend antofgods.tri 138.html , by Bernard Lewis, p 14 (1), Nov 1998
   On February 23, 1998, Al-Quds al-Arabi, an Arabic newspaper published in London, printed the full text of a "Declaration of the World Islamic Front for Jihad against the Jews and the Crusaders." According to the paper, the statement was faxed to them under the signatures of Usama bin Ladin, the Saudi financier blamed by the United States for masterminding the August bombings of its embassies in East Africa, and the leaders of militant Islamist groups in Egypt, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The statement--a magnificent piece of eloquent, at times even poetic Arabic prose--reveals a version of history that most Westerners will find unfamiliar. Bin Ladin's grievances are not quite what many would expect.
   The declaration begins with an exordium quoting the more militant passages in the Quran and the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, then continues:
Since God laid down the Arabian peninsula, created its desert, and surrounded it with its seas, no calamity has ever befallen it like these Crusader hosts that have spread in it like locusts, crowding its soil, eating its fruits, and destroying its verdure; and this at a time when the nations contend against the Muslims like diners jostling around a bowl of food.
   The statement goes on to talk of the need to understand the situation and act to rectify it. The facts, it says, are known to everyone and fall under three main headings:
First--For more than seven years the United States is occupying the lands of Islam in the holiest of its territories, Arabia, plundering its riches, overwhelming its rulers, humiliating its people, threatening its neighbors, and using its bases in the peninsula as a spearhead to fight against the neighboring Islamic peoples.
   Though some in the past have disputed the true nature of this occupation, the people of Arabia in their entirety have now recognized it.
   There is no better proof of this; than the continuing American aggression against the Iraqi people, launched from Arabia despite its rulers, who all oppose the use of their territories for this purpose but are subjugated.
   Second--Despite the immense destruction inflicted on the Iraqi people at the hands of the Crusader-Jewish alliance and in spite of the appalling number of dead, exceeding a million, the Americans nevertheless, in spite of all this, are trying once more to repeat this dreadful slaughter. It seems that the long blockade following after a fierce war, the dismemberment and the destruction are not enough for them. So they come again today to destroy what remains of this people and to humiliate their Muslim neighbors.
   Third--While the purposes of the Americans in these wars are religious and economic, they also serve the petty state of the Jews, to divert attention from their occupation of Jerusalem and their killing of Muslims in it.
   There is no better proof of all this than their eagerness to destroy Iraq, the strongest of the neighboring Arab states, and their attempt to dismember all the states of the region, such as Iraq and Saudi Arabia and Egypt and Sudan, into petty states, whose division and weakness would ensure the survival of Israel and the continuation of the calamitous Crusader occupation of the lands of Arabia.
   These crimes, the statement declares, amount to "a clear declaration of war by the Americans against God, his Prophet, and the Muslims." In such a situation, the declaration says, the ulema--authorities on theology and Islamic law, or sharia--throughout the centuries unanimously ruled that when enemies attack the Muslim lands, jihad becomes every Muslim's personal duty.
   In the technical language of the ulema, religious duties may be collective, to be discharged by the community as a whole, or personal, incumbent on every individual Muslim. In an offensive war, the religious duty of jihad is collective and may be discharged by volunteers and professionals. When the Muslim community is defending itself, however, jihad becomes an individual obligation.
   After quoting various Muslim authorities, the signatories then proceed to the final and most important part of their declaration, the fatwa, or ruling. It holds that
To kill Americans and their allies, both civil and military, is an individual duty of every Muslim who is able, in any country where this is possible, until the Aqsa Mosque [in Jerusalem] and the Haram Mosque [in Mecca] are freed from their grip and until their armies, shattered and broken-winged, depart from all the lands of Islam, incapable of threatening any Muslim.
   After citing some further relevant Quranic verses, the document continues:
By God's leave, we call on every Muslim who believes in God and hopes for reward to obey God's command to kill the Americans and plunder their possessions wherever he finds them and whenever he can. Likewise we call on the Muslim ulema and leaders and youth and soldiers to launch attacks against the armies of the American devils and against those who are allied with them from among the helpers of Satan.
   The declaration and fatwa conclude with a series of further quotations from Muslim scripture.
   Bin Ladin's view of the Gulf War as American aggression against Iraq may seem a little odd, but it is widely--though by no means universally--accepted in the Islamic world. For holy warriors of any faith, the faithful are always right and the infidels always wrong, whoever the protagonists and whatever the circumstances of their encounter.
   The three areas of grievance listed in the declaration--Arabia, Iraq, and Jerusalem--will be familiar to observers of the Middle Eastern scene. What may be less familiar is the sequence and emphasis. For Muslims, as we in the West sometimes tend to forget but those familiar with Islamic history and literature know, the holy land par excellence is Arabia--Mecca, where the Prophet was born; Medina, where he established the first Muslim state; and the Hijaz, whose people were the first to rally to the new faith and become its standard-bearers. Muhammad lived and died in Arabia, as did the Rashidun caliphs, his immediate successors at the head of the Islamic community. Thereafter, except for a brief interlude in Syria, the center of the Islamic world and the scene of its major achievements was Iraq, the seat of the caliphate for half a millennium. For Muslims, no piece of land once added to the realm of Islam can ever be finally renounced, but none compares in significance with Arabia and Iraq.
   Of these two, Arabia is by far the more important. The classical Arabic historians tell us that in the year 20 after the hijra (Muhammad's move from Mecca to Medina), corresponding to 641 of the Christian calendar, the Caliph Umar decreed that Jews and Christians should be removed from Arabia to fulfil an injunction the Prophet uttered on his deathbed: "Let there not be two religions in Arabia." The people in question were the Jews of the oasis of Khaybar in the north and the Christians of Najran in the south. Both were ancient and deep-rooted communities, Arab in their speech, culture, and way of life, differing from their neighbors only in their faith.
   The saying attributed to the Prophet was impugned by some earlier Islamic authorities. But it was generally accepted as authentic, and Umar put it into effect. The expulsion of religious minorities is extremely rare in Islamic history--unlike medieval Christendom, where evictions Compared with European expulsions, Umar's decree was both limited and compassionate. It did not include southern and southeastern Arabia, which were not seen as part of Islam's holy land. And unlike the Jews and Muslims driven out of Spain and other European countries to find what refuge they could elsewhere, the Jews and Christians of Arabia were resettled on lands assigned to them--the Jews in Syria, the Christians in Iraq. The process was also gradual rather than sudden, and there are reports of Jews and Christians remaining in Khaybar and Najran for some time after Umar's edict.
   But the decree was final and irreversible, and from then until now the holy land of the Hijaz has been forbidden territory for non-Muslims. According to the Hanbali school of Islamic jurisprudence, accepted by both the Saudis and the declaration's signatories, for a non-Muslim even to set foot on the sacred soil is a major offense. In the rest of the kingdom, non-Muslims, while admitted as temporary visitors, were not permitted to establish residence or practice their religion.
   The history of the Crusades provides a vivid example of the relative importance of Arabia and other places in Islamic perceptions. The Crusaders' capture of Jerusalem in 1099 was a triumph for Christendom and a disaster for the city's Jews. But to judge by the Arabic historiography of the period, it aroused scant interest in the region. Appeals for help by local Muslims to Damascus and Baghdad went unanswered, and the newly established Crusader principalities from Antioch to Jerusalem soon fitted into the game of Levantine politics, with cross-religious alliances forming a pattern of rivalries between and among Muslim and Christian princes.
   The great counter-Crusade that ultimately drove the Crusaders into the sea did not begin until almost a century later. Its immediate cause was the activities of a freebooting Crusader leader, Reynald of Chatillon, who held the fortress of Kerak, in southern Jordan, between 1176 and 1187 and used it to launch a series of raids against Muslim caravans and commerce in the adjoining regions, including the Hijaz. Historians of the Crusades are probably right in saying that Reynald's motive was primarily economic--the desire for loot. But Muslims saw his campaigns as a provocation, a challenge directed against Islam's holy places. In 1182, violating an agreement between the Crusader king of Jerusalem and the Muslim leader Saladin, Reynald attacked and looted Muslim caravans, including one of pilgrims bound for Mecca. Even more heinous, from a Muslim point of view, was his threat to Arabia and a memorable buccaneering expedition in the Red Sea, featuring attacks on Muslim shipping and the Hijaz ports that served Mecca and Medina. Outraged, Saladin proclaimed a jihad against the Crusaders.
   Even in Christian Europe, Saladin was justly celebrated and admired for his chivalrous and generous treatment of his defeated enemies. His magnanimity did not extend to Reynald of Chatillon. The great Arab historian Ibn al-Athir wrote, "Twice, [Saladin said,] I had made a vow to kill him if I had him in my hands; once when he tried to march on Mecca and Medina, and again when he treacherously captured the caravan." After Saladin's triumph, when many of the Crusader princes and chieftains were taken captive, he separated Reynald of Chattillon from the rest and beheaded him with his own hands.
   After the success of the jihad and the recapture of Jerusalem, Saladin and his successors seem to have lost interest in the city. In 1229, one of them even ceded Jerusalem to the Emperor Frederick II as part of a general compromise agreement between the Muslim ruler and the Crusaders. Jerusalem was retaken in 1244 after the Crusaders tried to make it a purely Christian city, then eventually became a minor provincial town. Widespread interest in Jerusalem was reawakened only in the nineteenth century, first by the European powers' quarrels over custody of the Christian holy places and then by new waves of Jewish immigration after 1882.
   In Arabia, however, the next perceived infidel threat came in the eighteenth century with the consolidation of European power in South Asia and the reappearance of Christian ships off the shores of Arabia. The resulting sense of outrage was at least one of the elements in the religious revival inspired in Arabia by the puritanical Wahhabi movement and led by the House of Saud, the founders of the modern Saudi state. During the period of Anglo-French domination of the Middle East, the imperial powers ruled Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Sudan. They nibbled at the fringes of Arabia, in Aden and the trucial sheikhdoms of the Gulf, but were wise enough to have no military and minimal political involvement in the affairs of the peninsula.
   Oil made that level of involvement totally inadequate, and a growing Western presence, predominantly American, began to transform every aspect of Arabian life. The Red Sea port of Jiddah had long served as a kind of religious quarantine area in which foreign diplomatic, consular, and commercial representatives were allowed to live. The discovery and exploitation of oil--and the consequent growth of the Saudi capital, Riyadh, from small oasis town to major metropolis--brought a considerable influx of foreigners. Their presence, still seen by many as a desecration, planted the seeds for a growing mood of resentment.
   As long as this foreign involvement was exclusively economic, and as long as the rewards were more than adequate to soothe every grievance, the alien presence could be borne. But in recent years both have changed. With the fall in oil prices and the rise in population and expenditure, the rewards are no longer adequate and the grievances have become more numerous and more vocal. Nor is the involvement limited to economic activities. The revolution in Iran and the wars of Saddam Hussein have added political and military dimensions to the foreign involvement and have lent some plausibility to the increasingly heard cries of "imperialism." Where their holy land is involved, many Muslims tend to define the struggle--and sometimes also the enemy--in religious terms, seeing the American troops sent to free Kuwait and save Saudi Arabia from Saddam Hussein as infidel invaders and occupiers. This perception is heightened by America's unquestioned primacy among the powers of the infidel world.
   To most Americans, the declaration is a travesty, a gross distortion of the nature and purpose of the American presence in Arabia. They should also know that for many--perhaps most--Muslims, the declaration is an equally grotesque travesty of the nature of Islam and even of its doctrine of jihad. The Quran speaks of peace as well as of war. The hundreds of thousands of traditions and sayings attributed with varying reliability to the Prophet, interpreted in various ways by the ulema, offer a wide range of guidance. The militant and violent interpretation is one among many. The standard juristic treatises on sharia normally contain a chapter on jihad, understood in the military sense as regular warfare against infidels and apostates. But these treatises prescribe correct behavior and respect for the rules of war in such matters as the opening and termination of hostilities and the treatment of noncombatants and prisoners, not to speak of diplomatic envoys. The jurists also discuss--and sometimes differ on--the actual conduct of war. Some permit, some restrict, and some disapprove of the use of mangonels, poisoned arrows, and the poisoning of enemy water supplies--the missile and chemical warfare of the Middle Ages--out of concern for the indiscriminate casualties that these weapons inflict. At no point do the basic texts of Islam enjoin terrorism and murder. At no point do they even consider the random slaughter of uninvolved bystanders.
   Nevertheless, some Muslims are ready to approve, and a few of them to apply, the declaration's extreme interpretation of their religion. Terrorism requires only a few. Obviously, the West must defend itself by whatever means will be effective. But in devising strategies to fight the terrorists, it would surely be useful to understand the forces that drive them.
   BERNARD LEWIS is Cleveland E. Dodge Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University. His books include The Arabs in History, The Emergence of Modern Turkey, and, most recently, The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years.
   [RECAPITULATION: [A.D.641] … Caliph Umar decreed that Jews and Christians should be removed from Arabia to fulfil an injunction the Prophet uttered on his deathbed: "Let there not be two religions in Arabia."
   [A.D. 1998] … Usama bin Ladin, the Saudi financier blamed by the United States for masterminding the August bombings of its embassies in East Africa, and the leaders of militant Islamist groups in Egypt, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.  ENDS.]
   [DOCTRINE: Koran 8:12:- … I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them. dept/MSA/ quran/008. qmt.html# 008.012 DOCTRINE ENDS.]
   [REMINDER: Usama bin Ladin is a Saudi millionaire whose family has for two generations been involved in business deals with the Bush family.  Although Bush the Second's bombing and land armies have been on Afghanistan (where he was reported to be at the time) and Iraq (not reported there!) among other places, they have not spread to bin Ladin's homeland, Saudi Arabia.  Do Western voters ever pause to wonder why?  ENDS.] [Nov 1998]

• 1999 - The Difficulties Of Dialogue With Islam; AND: 9/11: A Prophecy  Vatican City / Papal flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  Turkey flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 

The Difficulties Of Dialogue With Islam; AND: 9/11: A Prophecy

   L'Osservatore Romano, (Reporting on the 2nd Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops), by Giuseppe Bernardini, Nov. 17, 1999
   (As reprinted in "The Difficulties Of Dialogue With Islam," Annals Australasia, January-February 2006, AND: "9/11: A Prophecy," Fidelity magazine (Australia), p 6, March 2006)
   I HAVE been living in Turkey for the past 42 years, a 99.9 per cent Muslim country, and I have been the Archbishop of Izmir - Asia Minor - for the past 16 years. The theme of my intervention is therefore obvious: the problem of Islam in Europe today and in the future. I thank Bishop Pelatre, who already spoke about this theme in this prestigious assembly, …
   1. During an official meeting on Islamic-Christian dialogue, an authoritative Muslim person, speaking to the Christians participating, at one point said very calmly and assuredly: 'Thanks to your democratic laws we will invade you; thanks to our religious laws we will dominate you'. […]
   2. During another Islamic-Christian meeting, always organised by Christians, a Christian participant publicly asked the Muslims present why they did not organise at least one meeting of this kind. The Muslim authority present answered in the following words: 'Why should we? You have nothing to teach us and we have nothing to learn'. […]
   3. In a Catholic monastery in Jerusalem there was and perhaps still is a Muslim Arab servant. An honest and gentle person, he was respected greatly by the religious who in turn were respected by him. One day, he sadly told them: "Our chiefs have met and have decided that all the 'infidels' must be killed, but do not fear because I will kill you without making you suffer." […]
   We are all aware that we must distinguish between the fanatic and violent minority from the tranquil and honest majority, but this, at an order given in the name of Allah or the Qur’an, will always march compact and without hesitations. […]
   [MORE INFORMATION: The articles in the two magazines are not identical. Find them in date order on this website.] [Inserted on this webpage on 19 June 06] [Nov 17, 99]
• [2000 - Bombs kill 19 outside Christian churches in Indonesia.]  Indonesia flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 

On this day.  [Bombs kill 19 outside Christian churches in Indonesia, 2000]

   The West Australian, , "On this day," p 35, Monday, Dec 24, 2007 (actual events: December 24, 2000)
   2000 [Dec. 24]: Bombs were detonated outside churches in nine Indonesian cities and towns, killing at least 19 people.
[Actual events: Dec 24, 2000]

• [2001 - Clinton pardons those who armed Iran, illegally, and takes donations.]   United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  Iran (formerly Persia) flag; 

US pardons linked to donations

   The West Australian, Washington Post, p 22, Monday, February 12, 2001
   House looks into nature of Bill Clinton's 11th-hour largesse
   WASHINGTON –TWO pardons granted by Bill Clinton to criminals in the last hours of his United States presidency have been linked to donations.
   Carlos Vignali, who served only six months of a 15-year term for drug running, is the son of Los Angeles entrepreneur Horacio Vignali, who donated more than $288,000 to Democratic Party interests.
   Denise Rich, who lobbied Mr Clinton to pardon her former husband, fugitive financier Marc Rich, donated $819,000 to Mr Clinton's Arkansas presidential library fund. […]
   Ms Rich's lawyer, Carol Bruce, told a House of Representatives committee investigating the pardon that her client gave an enormous sum of money to the Clinton library fund. […]
   Mr Rich and business partner Pincus Green were indicted in 1983 on charges of tax evasion and trading with Iran while American hostages were held in Tehran.
   The two fled the country and never faced trial. Their pardons were controversial because prosecutors who brought the case did not know they were being considered. #
   [COMMENT: So, Clinton also has joined those who illegally used U.S. taxpayers' funds and expertise to arm Iran, an Islamic extremist dictatorship. "Long may it wave, … the home of the free, and the land of the brave." It is a sick "republican democracy" that allows the President to have the powers of ancient and mediaeval monarchs to release favourites (and imprison people without trial). Global corporations just love anyone who fosters dictators, because they nearly always result in higher profits from the sale of armaments to them and their opponents. COMMENT ENDS.]
   [GEORGE BUSH Senior, too: "Let the others have the charisma.  I've got the class." –George Bush, former U.S. president, during his presidential campaign.  On December 24, 1992, he pardoned Caspar Weinberger and five other Reagan aides involved in the Iran-Contra affair. -- The West Australian, "Today's Thought," p 35, Mon. Dec 24, 2007. ENDS.]
   [FULLER VERSION of CLINTON article: Main / Contents # Pardon Iran ENDS.] [Feb 12, 2001]

• Congratulations to the Federal Parliament for stopping the Tampa!  Our culture, ecology, and patience have limits!

Congratulations to the Federal Parliament for stopping the Tampa!

Our culture, ecology, and patience have limits!
   Letter SENT to Mr Bob Katter, Independent MHR for Kennedy, Parliament House, Canberra, one of 76 sent by e-mail, August 30, 2001
   Hearty congratulations to the Federal Parliament and Government for sending the Special Air Service Regiment to seize the mv Tampa, which has 438 illegal queue-jumpers on board.  (It is reported that nearby nations are fostering a further 2000 "illegals.")
   Keep up your courage!  This action might save us from suicide bombers in our night clubs, riots and burnings in our cities, repression of women, and denial of the rights of the majority of the population here.  The people of Bradford and parts of London need plenty of courage, and so do our people if we are to save ourselves from having such divided communities.
   As well as our culture, our ecology also has limits.  Take information from Sustainable Population Australia, whose website is at and from the Australian Conservation Foundation at .
   Australian polls show that there are steady majorities opposing the present immigration rates, and supporting reductions in all sorts of immigration.
   Reporting Australia to the United Nations is as "frightening" as the many reports the UN has received about the situation in Israel and many other trouble spots –nothing happens.  Even the crying needs of Kosovo and East Timor did not stir the major nations into taking military action under the UN flag.  The present Federal Parliament took the brave action in East Timor that ought to have been taken in 1975.
   I notice that the "15 unconscious people on board" became zero once the SAS arrived.  Mr Skase and Mr Bond are not the only people who can fake illnesses!
   Send more army, navy and air force units to the area, and tug the ship to the nearby Indonesian port.  There are dozens of other nations, including Indonesia, into which the illegals could easily fit in terms of culture and religion.  Or, the Afghans among them could go to the part of Afghanistan that are NOT held by their enemies. #
[Aug 30, 2001]

2001, SEPTEMBER 11 –ATROCITY of 9/11
   UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: World Trade Center (two towers) in New York and the Pentagon in Washington were hit by what seemed to be passenger aeroplanes.  A fourth aeroplane crashed into a field, possibly flying to Washington.  A smaller tower building near the World Trade Center, called WTC 7, collapsed in a manner similar to the tall ones that had been hit by aircraft.
   Hundreds of people, civilians in the towers and the aircraft, and military in the Pentagon, were killed.  The damage to the Pentagon was more like a hole, not as if caused by an aeroplane with wings and a high tail.
   Rejoicing crowds of Muslims were photographed in various parts of the world, and congratulatory placards and banners were unfurled in various countries, including near Darwin, NT, Australia.  Very soon Osama Bin Laden's group, Al-Qaeda, was blamed.  It was some time before one of his broadcasts more or less took responsibility for this atrocity; later broadcasts gloated, pointing out the Koranic punishments due to the United States.
   However, many unexplained events on that day, including the unexplained collapse of the building WTC 7 near the World Trade Center towers, leave many people discussing theories that the three New York building collapses were "controlled demolitions," possibly organised by forces inside the groups in and around President George W. Bush's Administration, which included oil and armaments interests who profit greatly from both sides in revolutions, rogue states, and the so-called democracies' wars for "peace and security."
   Submission Study Unit wonders if the explosive charges had been set in THREE World Trade Center buildings, including WTC 7 which the conspirators planned to be hit with an aircraft to cover up the pre-set charges, but the passengers in that aircraft fought with the criminals and the plane eventually crashed into a field, but the demolition charges were detonated anyway – whether by Islamist agents of Muslim Jihad or by agents of "Global Superbig Business".
   SSU has read that some of the Muslim Arabs supposedly on the alleged death aircraft turned out to have been out of the U.S.A., very much alive, within days of the atrocities.  However, not one of the passengers or pilots said to have been on the aeroplanes has ever been seen again.
   [DETAILED THEORISING: See "The American Empire and 9/11," by emeritus professor David Ray Griffin, formerly of Claremont School of Theology (presumably in the USA), undated; republished under a heading and short introduction "The Search for 9/11 Truth," in The New Times Survey (Melbourne, Vic.), pp 1-8, Vol. 8, No. 5, May 2007.
   Also consider the statement in that introduction that President George W. Bush was told of the first attack before he left his Florida hotel.  See­articles/may2­007/040507bus­htold.htm . ENDS.]
   [KORAN: 22:19 (or 22:20):- … But as for those who disbelieve, garments of fire will be cut out for them; boiling fluid will be poured down on their heads. <­sura22.html#19 > DOCTRINE ENDS.]
   [HADITH: 3, 39:519:- The Prophet got the date palm trees of the tribe of Bani-An-Nadir burnt and the trees cut down at a place called Al-Buwaira.  Hassan bin Thabit said in a poetic verse:  "The chiefs of Bani Lu'ai found it easy to watch fire spreading at Al-Buwaira." TRADITION ENDS.]
   [CONTACT: Griffin's article has 105 references in the text.  The four pages of Reference Notes are obtainable from The New Times Survey, GPO Box 1052, Melbourne. Vic, 3001, Australia. ENDS.]
[Sep 11, 2001]

• [2001 - Sept 11, High Finance, secret police, and debts of the Third World.] United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   Scoop, "Written In Belief for Arrietti," , By Michael Rowbotham, Wednesday, 12:23 pm, October 3, 2001,
   UNITED STATES: In this short book, I argue that there is strong evidence that the events of 11th September represent a terrorism of a kind not currently being discussed, and include the involvement of agents and agencies not publicly imagined as being associated with such acts. I believe that this suspicion, voiced by many others, must be taken seriously and its public disproof demanded by all concerned citizens and NGOs. …
   But central to any fair analysis, as [Michael] Chossudovsky's full article emphasises, is the intimate association of the CIA [Central Intelligence Agency, a US Government secret service department] with that indoctrination process and the astonishing effort put into clandestine policy in the Middle East. What was the precise involvement and degree of responsibility of Osama bin Laden? Is bin Laden indeed a "blowback"? Or is he the precise creation that was intended; a hostile, fanatical and twisted figurehead, little more aware than we of what precisely is going on? What, if any, was his relation, to the Pakistan ISI, and theirs with the CIA?. What links does the Al Qaeda organisation have with all of these parties? What of the suggested links with [Israel's secret force] Mossad, the Syrian Air Force Intelligence Service (SAFIS) and the Pakistani ISI in all this? …
   If the issue of CIA/US finance and/or other agency involvement turns out to be completely groundless, Chossudovsky's well-researched article shows beyond doubt that the situation of internecine conflict between Islamic fundamentalism and America has clearly been contributed to heavily by the United States.
   Rowbotham's book Goodbye America: Globalisation, Debt and the Dollar Empire 2000 has been described by The Ecologist as 'essential reading for social and environmental reformers … Rowbotham's work places him on a par with social reforming economists E.F.Schumacher and Henry George'. [Article's date Oct 3, 01]
• 2001 - Daniel Pipes' website: An authoritative commentator on the Near East, according to the Wall Street Journal, has a forum to let people explain the tension between civilisations. to this website 28 Oct 02
• 2001 - Islam's Sword Point Evangelism on Calvary Road Baptist Church website: "Because of the atrocity that took place in New York City and Washington, D. C. on September 11 [2001], eight days ago, I began last Sunday morning a series of messages titled "The Blight Of Islam," which is an examination of and an expose of the religion of Islam. …
   Mohammed gathered raiding parties that attacked the caravans travelling to and from Mecca. Fazlur Rahman, professor of Islamic Thought, University of Chicago, writes that Mohammed also had his opponents in the city of Medina killed, and ordered the mass execution of all the men of one Jewish clan who had collaborated with his opponents.
   With the Arabs coming out of the Arabian peninsula it was 100 years of nonstop warfare and bloodshed. It took only 8 years after Mohammed died to capture Persia, Syria and Egypt. Another 70 years was required to reduce all of North Africa. And had not Charles Martel, the grandfather of Charlemagne, stopped the Muslim army's advance from Spain into what is today France in 732, you and I would all be speaking Arabic and praying toward Mecca five times a day. But wherever Islam met non-Islam it was always the same. Sword point evangelism."
   –Calvary Road Baptist Church, , September 2001
• 2001 - Our Islamic Fifth Column. Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   City Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, "Our Islamic Fifth Column: Radical clerics are recruiting British Muslim kids as terrorists," www.­­html/11_4_­our_isl­amic.html , by Farrukh Dhondy, (Northern) Autumn 2001
   BRITAIN: Radical clerics are recruiting British Muslim kids as terrorists.  In 1989 came the most significant divide in the multicultural history of Britain: the Rushdie affair, which uncovered a multicultural fifth column, whose literary criticism entailed book burning and death threats.
   The British Muslim community echoed the call of the Ayatollah Khomeini to hunt down and kill the writer. There were denunciations of Rushdie in every mosque by mullahs and crowds who had only handled a copy of the book to burn it. Not one mullah – not one – raised a voice in support of the principle of freedom of creativity; no mullah ventured the opinion that the fatwa was wrong or against Islamic teaching. […]
   Three years ago, the Yemeni police caught eight young men with plans and equipment to bomb British targets in that country: the offices, homes, and churches of the British diplomatic and expatriate community. Six of these young Muslims, all of Pakistani origin, held British passports. […]
   In the summer of 2001, riots broke out in several of the mill-and-mosque towns. A few hundred masked "Asian" (which in Britain means Indian, Pakistani, or Bangladeshi) youths took to the streets after dark and began torching shops, pubs, cars, and buses. They fought the riot police with staves and stones. Oldham, Bradford, and Burnley exploded in riots. […]
   Western Muslims must now discover in their own history and theology that nothing forbids the rise of a single or collective Martin Luther who will defy the medievalist mullahs (a self-appointed rather than an anointed clergy) and will pin new theses, renouncing world conquest, on the doors of every mosque. The development of Islam, though constantly hijacked by fundamentalist sects like the Wahabis, has always had a strong, non-proselytizing, mystical Sufi current, to which 80 percent of the world's Muslims have some connection. …
   True, passages in the Quran urge believers to "kill those who join other gods with God wherever ye shall find them" [[Such a verse not yet found by S.S.U.]] and to wage war on neighboring infidels [[Koran 9:5]].  But a hundred suras of the Quran also enjoin the faithful to tolerance: one specifically says that killing one innocent person is akin to the murder of the whole world.  [[A hundred ?]]
   An Islamic Reformation would delegitimate literal interpretations of Quranic passages stoking intolerance and emphasize those that resemble the Golden Rule.  As for the officials of America and Britain, they need to redirect the effort and money that they have poured into race relations and multiculturalism into a clear, reasoned, energetic defence of the values of freedom and democracy.  Their future depends on it. [(Northern) Autumn 2001]
• 2001 - Radical Islam's phoney patriotism.
   World Net Daily, "Radical Islam's phoney patriotism," by Debbie Schlussel, "Debbie does politics" ©2001: news/article.asp? ARTICLE_ID=24835 , Monday October 8 2001
   UNITED STATES: While President Bush – and now, Oprah – continue to paint a rosy picture of the American-Arab Islamic community, this picture is not entirely accurate.
   … on Nov. 15, 1998, I attended a religious service at Qazwini's mosque that was anything but pro-American and peaceful. Dressed undercover as a Muslim woman, I watched invited speaker Louis Farrakhan preach hate and violence to a very receptive audience of over 1,000 primarily Arab Muslim-Americans.
   It was chilling to watch their and Qazwini's frenzied applause and wild cheering as Farrakhan preached about how our government was occupied by "forces of evil" and "people in positions of power with a Satanic mentality" and urged, "We should perform a jihad (holy war).  [They are] frightened, and we must frighten them even more."
   Qazwini and a man whom I believe to be Osama Siblani, publisher of the Arab-American News, called Farrakhan "our dear brother," "a freedom fighter" and "a man of courage and sacrifice." [Oct 8, 01]
• 2001 - Graham's Islam comment won't bring apology,
   Clarion-Ledger, "Graham's Islam comment won't bring apology," www.clarion news/0111/ 30/lmat.html , by Matt Friedeman, Clarion-Ledger Staff Writer, November 30, 2001
   UNITED STATES: Islam, he says, "is a very evil and wicked religion."
   "He" is Franklin Graham, offspring of one of the world's most famous evangelists and now head of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association.
   His remarks were first featured on an NBC-TV new show. Graham was later asked to retract his comment.
   He refused. Good for him. Americans have been more than fair, on the whole, to people of the Islamic faith in this country. For starters, there is our Constitution and the freedom of religion that is stated front and centre in the First Amendment. [Nov 30, 01]
• 2001 - Polite, respectful, very nice, quite inquisitive – Taliban fighter; KERRY O'BRIEN: First, the tale of a young Australian who's been captured in Afghanistan by Northern Alliance troops who say he was fighting for the Taliban. … He's apparently a 26-year-old from Adelaide and authorities say he received military training with Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda terrorist network.  …
   ANNE BARKER: It's worlds away from Afghanistan, but this simple mosque in Adelaide's northern suburbs was the start of a spiritual journey which led a seemingly ordinary young man to the Taliban front-line. It was here that the quiet unassuming 26-year-old sought spiritual guidance a few years ago after discovering Islam in Kosovo during the Kosovo-Albanian war. …
   WALI HANIFI, PRESIDENT ISLAMIC SOCIETY OF SA: He came to the mosque more than two years ago. He spent three to four weeks at the mosque, coming from time to time during the week and just interested in increasing his knowledge about Islam, just to know the community, and he spoke about his intentions to go overseas. …
   ANNE BARKER: What sort of person was he, is he?
   WALI HANIFI: He was a polite respectful person. I found him a very nice person to speak with. He was quite inquisitive. He was obviously looking for spiritual fulfilment, and he was concerned for the welfare of others. – Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 7.30 Report, "Search for Australian Taliban fighter's motivation," .au/7.30/s 439051.htm , Kerry O'Brien, Anne Barker, 12 Dec 2001
• 2001 - Fast Facts on Islam; What You Need to Know Now. 

 Fast Facts® on Islam 

What You Need to Know Now
   Book, © 2001, by John ANKERBERG and John WELDON, Harvest House Publishers, Eugene (Oregon, U.S.A.), Pages 102-04
   Chapter 30:  Is Radical Muslim Terrorism Non-Islamic?
   […] Certainly, radical Islam is not how the religion is practiced by the majority of Muslims, who are nonviolent. … the radicals … their message would not find the success it has were there not some supporting basis within Islam.  Three "supports" for their message are Kharijism, Wahhabism, and jihad.
   Two forms of Islam
   Kharijism was an early sect in Islam that fits quite well with modern radical Islam.  In early Islam, a civil war was fought over the "true" successor to Muhammad, a conflict that led to the division between the majority Sunni and minority Shiite branches of Islam.  A group later named the Kharijites ("withdrawers") believed that only God could determine the proper successor, and that He would let His will be known in battle.
   The Kharijites
held that any person who strayed from the perfect practice of Islam was ipso facto an apostate and could be killed.  And they believed that only they had the true notion of what Islam required.  They had the true notion of what Islam required. [sic]  They applied their doctrine with a ferocity against both the developing Sunni and Shi’a traditions of Islam. …  Their tactics were frightfully violent, and it took centuries before they were put down. 172
   […] "Kharijite uprisings continued…in Iran, Iraq and Arabia;…Kharijism was suppressed in Iraq but continued to play an important political role in eastern Arabia, North Africa, and eastern Africa.  Kharijism survives today in these areas." 174
   The form of Islam called Wahhabism also lends itself to extremists like [Osama] bin Laden.  Muwahhidun, the term used by followers, was founded by Muhammad ibn ’Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792) in Saudi Arabia, and is predicated on the Sunni teachings of Ibn Hanbal (780-855). […] Muwahhidun became in inspiration to other Islamic reform movements from India and Sumatra to North Africa and the Sudan. […]
   Wahhabism's ultimate purpose is to bring about a global revolution base on Wahhabi teachings, […]
   Because much other Islamic tradition also divides the world into two opposing camps, the dar al-Islam (the realm of Islam) and the dar al-harb (the realm of war), between which there is to be unending conflict, the radicals feel further justified in their point of view, and believe that Islam is destined for victory by Allah.
   […] But in spite of what moderates may believe, and even though the radicals do not completely represent true Islam today, they do have a basis in Islamic history for their beliefs.
172.  David F. Forte, "Radical Islam vs. Islam," (<http://www. heritage. org/views/ 2001/ ed091901. html>)
174.  <http://www. princeton. edu/~batke/ itl/denise/ kharijis. htm>

   [EMPHASIS, i.e., bolding of two words, added by Webmaster. ENDS.]
[To WWW May 06, 2008; book 2001]

• 2001, Sep 11 - Attacks on New York and Washington. Hijacked aircraft are flown into the World Trade Centre twin towers in New York, and the Pentagon (i.e., the armed forces headquarters), Washington.  Another plane seems to have been crashed into a field after the passengers rose up against the Islamist hijackers.  (This is covered more fully above.) [Sep 11, 2001]
• 2001 - Problematic Verses in The Koran - A Dialogue with Contemporary Islam, on American Middle-Eastern Association website (gives Koran warlike and discriminatory verses, plus arguments against its divine origin; written by a Greek Orthodox Christian, working in the U.S.A., and whose mother tongue is Arabic). – , late 2001
• 2002 - Justice Department Clarifies Ashcroft's View of Islam United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   Fox News www.foxnews. com/story/0, 2933,45410, 00.html , By Ian McCaleb, Tuesday, February 12, 2002
   WASHINGTON: A Justice Department official has clarified the opinion of Attorney General John Ashcroft after Arab groups criticized widely-circulated remarks about Islam attributed to Ashcroft.
   The New York Daily News reported this weekend that the Arab American Institute called for an apology or resignation from Ashcroft for comments printed on columnist Cal Thomas' Web site from an interview he conducted with Ashcroft on Nov. 9 of last year.
   The comment, reported by Thomas, read: "Islam is a religion in which God requires you to send your son to die for him. Christianity is a faith in which God sends His son to die for you."
   A U.S. Justice Dept. official told Fox News on Monday: "I want to express my appreciation for the efforts of American Muslim leaders to educate the public about their faith, and to stress that the Muslim faith is peaceful and in no way condones these acts of violence. Muslim Americans are patriotic citizens who deserve dignity and respect." [Feb 12, 02]
• "Ashcroft Invokes Religion In U.S. War on Terrorism;" U.S. Attorney General John D. Ashcroft yesterday cast the government's war on terrorism in religious terms, arguing that the campaign is rooted in faith in God and urging Christians, Jews and Muslims to unite in the effort.
   Contrasting "the way of God and the way of the terrorists," Ashcroft's speech to a group of Christian broadcasters in Nashville included some of the most explicitly religious remarks from the attorney general since he was confirmed amid controversy over his views more than a year ago.
   Yesterday's remarks revived criticism from civil liberties advocates alarmed by Ashcroft's religious views and did little to quell complaints from Arab American and Muslim leaders about a controversial statement about Islam attributed to Ashcroft by a syndicated columnist.
   Cal Thomas quoted Ashcroft as saying that "Islam is a religion in which God requires you to send your son to die for him. Christianity is a faith in which God sends his son to die for you." Ashcroft said in a statement last week that the reported remarks "do not accurately reflect what I believe I said." …
   "Rather than allaying our concerns, these comments only raise more concerns," James Zogby, president of the Washington-based Arab American Institute, said yesterday. "It is fine that he is a man of faith, but the attorney general, who represents all the people, seems to be projecting himself as a religious leader." – Washington Post, "Ashcroft Invokes Religion In U.S. War on Terrorism" www.washington wp-dyn?page name=article& node=&content Id=A35555-2002 Feb19¬Found= true , By Dan Eggen, Page A02, Wednesday, February 20, 2002
• From Egypt to California by Robert H. Goldsborough, March 2002 Sudan / Soudan flag;  Nigeria flag;   Saudi Arabia flag;  Iraq / Irak flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  Bangladesh flag; 
   "In Sudan today, Christians are attacked, killed and butchered in the name of Islam. Women and children are sold into slavery.
   "In Nigeria, Muslim majority communities have attacked Christian minorities who resisted imposition of Islamic law in certain areas. "In Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern states, churches … aren't even allowed. "Saddam Hussein specified that Christians be used as human minesweepers in the Iran-Iraq and Gulf Wars.
   "In Bangladesh, aid workers and offices are attacked for daring to empower women with micro-credit initiatives. Acid throwing by husbands and spurned lovers onto helpless women are justified by the Koran passage that allows husbands to beat or scourge a disobedient wife." Reprinted by CFN with the permission of Robert H. Goldsborough and the American Research Foundation. tradition. org/cfn- egypt.htm From Catholic Family News, March 2002
• Apartheid in the Holy Land  Israel flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  Palestine Authority flag; Palestine Authority website 
   The Guardian (Britain), comment/0,105 51,706911, 00.html , by (Anglican Archbishop) Desmond Tutu, Monday, April 29, 2002

Apartheid in the Holy Land

Desmond Tutu
Monday April 29, 2002
The Guardian
   In our struggle against apartheid, the great supporters were Jewish people. They almost instinctively had to be on the side of the disenfranchised, of the voiceless ones, fighting injustice, oppression and evil. I have continued to feel strongly with the Jews. I am patron of a Holocaust centre in South Africa. I believe Israel has a right to secure borders.
   What is not so understandable, not justified, is what it did to another people to guarantee its existence. I've been very deeply distressed in my visit to the Holy Land; it reminded me so much of what happened to us black people in South Africa. I have seen the humiliation of the Palestinians at checkpoints and roadblocks, suffering like us when young white police officers prevented us from moving about.
   On one of my visits to the Holy Land I drove to a church with the Anglican bishop in Jerusalem. I could hear tears in his voice as he pointed to Jewish settlements. I thought of the desire of Israelis for security. But what of the Palestinians who have lost their land and homes?
   I have experienced Palestinians pointing to what were their homes, now occupied by Jewish Israelis. I was walking with Canon Naim Ateek (the head of the Sabeel Ecumenical Centre) in Jerusalem. He pointed and said: "Our home was over there. We were driven out of our home; it is now occupied by Israeli Jews."
   My heart aches. I say why are our memories so short. Have our Jewish sisters and brothers forgotten their humiliation? Have they forgotten the collective punishment, the home demolitions, in their own history so soon? Have they turned their backs on their profound and noble religious traditions? Have they forgotten that God cares deeply about the downtrodden?
   Israel will never get true security and safety through oppressing another people. A true peace can ultimately be built only on justice. We condemn the violence of suicide bombers, and we condemn the corruption of young minds taught hatred; but we also condemn the violence of military incursions in the occupied lands, and the inhumanity that won't let ambulances reach the injured.
   The military action of recent days, I predict with certainty, will not provide the security and peace Israelis want; it will only intensify the hatred.
   Israel has three options: revert to the previous stalemated situation; exterminate all Palestinians; or - I hope - to strive for peace based on justice, based on withdrawal from all the occupied territories, and the establishment of a viable Palestinian state on those territories side by side with Israel, both with secure borders.
   We in South Africa had a relatively peaceful transition. If our madness could end as it did, it must be possible to do the same everywhere else in the world. If peace could come to South Africa, surely it can come to the Holy Land?
   My brother Naim Ateek has said what we used to say: "I am not pro- this people or that. I am pro-justice, pro-freedom. I am anti- injustice, anti-oppression."
   But you know as well as I do that, somehow, the Israeli government is placed on a pedestal [in the US], and to criticise it is to be immediately dubbed anti-semitic, as if the Palestinians were not semitic. I am not even anti-white, despite the madness of that group. And how did it come about that Israel was collaborating with the apartheid government on security measures?
   People are scared in this country [the US], to say wrong is wrong because the Jewish lobby is powerful - very powerful. Well, so what? For goodness sake, this is God's world! We live in a moral universe. The apartheid government was very powerful, but today it no longer exists. Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Pinochet, Milosevic, and Idi Amin were all powerful, but in the end they bit the dust.
   Injustice and oppression will never prevail. Those who are powerful have to remember the litmus test that God gives to the powerful: what is your treatment of the poor, the hungry, the voiceless? And on the basis of that, God passes judgment.
   We should put out a clarion call to the government of the people of Israel, to the Palestinian people and say: peace is possible, peace based on justice is possible. We will do all we can to assist you to achieve this peace, because it is God's dream, and you will be able to live amicably together as sisters and brothers.
   Desmond Tutu is the former Archbishop of Cape Town and chairman of South Africa's truth and reconciliation commission. This address was given at a conference on Ending the Occupation held in Boston, Massachusetts, earlier this month. A longer version appears in the current edition of Church Times.
comment@ guardian.
Special report Israel and the Middle East […]
   [COMMENT: A reformist group sent this article to this website ~ June 15, 06. Note that Archbishop Tutu noticed that Arabs are Semites, too! So the term anti-Semite is used as an incorrect "political swearword" instead of "anti-Jew" in most cases.  COMMENT ENDS.] [Apr 29, 02]
• Violence in the Koran and the Bible. 

VIOLENCE IN THE KORAN AND THE BIBLE (very long, but, worthwile)

   Free Republic website, republic. com/focus/ f-religion/ 696408/posts , Posted on June/07/2002, 11:48:16 AM PDT by lews, By Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi | e-mail | May/30/2002
   […] Is it true that the Koran is a contradictory book that condemns war on the one hand and commands warfare on the other hand? The answer is "No!"  We shall show below that the contradictions in the Koran are resolved by recognizing Muhammad's progressive teachings from peace to war during the course of his life and experiences.
   At the beginning of his mission, Muhammad urged his followers to meet opposition with patience and persuasion. Scholars refer to these texts of the Koran as "verses of forgiveness and pardon." […]
   Stage Four: Offensive War is Commanded Against the Pagans, Christians and Jews.
   The final phase of Muhammad's teaching on warfare developed after he conquered Mecca in 630 A. D. Most of the pagans living in the city became Muslims. At that time Muhammad was able to take over the city and cleanse the Ka'aba (sacred shrine) of some 360 idols resident there.
   At this point it became evident to Muhammad that Jews and Christians would not accept him as prophet, so they became part of the list of Islam's enemies to be conquered. Thus, warfare was no longer to be a defensive fighting, but an aggressive Jihad against all unbelievers. This is the final teaching of the Koran which is still in force today and has inspired the recent acts of terrorism.
   There are several texts commanding offensive warfare to kill the pagans, Jews, and Christians. Among them Sura 9:5 stands out for its explicit injunction to slay the infidels: "When the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war). But if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity [become Moslem], then open the way for them." The best way for people to save their lives, was by renouncing their religion and adopting the Islam faith. In some instances conquered people could save their lives by paying a heavy tribute and becoming submissive to Muslim rulers.
   In the same chapter, Sura 9:29-31, Muslims are commanded to fight Jews and Christians until they are subdued. Those who submitted themselves to Muslim rulers were to be subjected to a heavy tribute. The reason is because God's curse is upon them: "Fight those who believe not in God nor the last day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by God and His Apostle, nor acknowledge the religion of truth, (even if they are) of the people of the Book [Christians and Jews], until they pay the jizya [tribute] with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. The Jews call Uzair [Ezra] a son of God, and the Christians call Christ the Son of God … God's curse be on them." […]
   [And the rest of this thoughtful well-referenced article contrasts the Islamic strategies and tactics with Christianity.  It also urges people to try to prevent UNJUST dealings with the Muslim world.]
[May 30, 02]

• [Dhimmi and other people classified in religious teaching to be discriminated against, and its long-term effect on Pakistan's laws.] Pakistan flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  A People Betrayed; Patrick SOOKHDEO, 2002, 9kb
   "The relevance of the concept of dhimmi in theory and practice," pages 119 to 146 (part of chapter 3) of the book A People Betrayed; The Impact of Islamization on the Christian Community in Pakistan, Christian Focus Publications, Fearn, and Isaac Publishing, Pewsey; By © Patrick SOOKHDEO (book based on doctoral thesis), 2002
   BRITAIN / PAKISTAN: (This book details the discriminatory clauses of Islamic religious teaching in relation to "conquered peoples" and other subjugated classifications and how Pakistan which had a theoretically fair constitution has been changing more and more to the fundamentals of the old Muslim traditions, that is, to give non-Muslims very few rights.
   (As the rest of the book shows, this even includes such unjust laws and practices such as if a Christian woman converts to Islam her marriage to a Christian is dissolved (page 206). There have been cases of abduction and enforced conversion and marriage to a Muslim, with the pretence it was all voluntary.
   (With practices such as two male witnesses, or one male and two female, can prove a case, but four female witnesses cannot, and non-Muslims are also not counted as complete persons, it is easy to see how people of other faiths, and fair-minded Muslims, oppose the moves to introduce Shariah law.)
   Part of Chapter 3 of the book A People Betrayed; The Impact of Islamization on the Christian Community in Pakistan, Christian Focus Publications, Fearn, and Isaac Publishing, Pewsey; pages 119-146, By © Patrick SOOKHDEO (book based on doctoral thesis), 2002.

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       119
The relevance of the concept of
dhimmi in theory and practice
Dhimmi in classical Islam
   An examination of Qur’anic texts in the order of their revelation1 shows that initially Jews and Christians - ahl al-kitab (people of the book i.e. who had their own revealed scriptures) - are considered favoured by God (unlike the pagans) though not of equal status with Muslims. Also in this category are the mysterious Sabeans whose identity is uncertain (mentioned only three times). To this some would add the Magians (mentioned in 5.22:17) usually considered to be Zoroastrians.2 The early references to Jews and Christians are peaceable and commendatory; they are
1. a task complicated by the fact that there is no unanimity on the exact chronological order of the revelations
2. Zebiri op. cit. p.256

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virtually embraced within the fold of Islam as honorary Muslims. For example:
Those who believe (in the Qur’an), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians, - any who believe in God and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord: on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.3
   This distinguished them from other non-Muslims who were called kafirun (unbelievers) and who, as polytheists, were unequivocally condemned. For example,
   "O ye who believe: truly the Pagans are unclean" 4 and the famous "sword verse" commanding Muslims to "fight and slay the pagans wherever ye find them."5
   Later texts, however, present the ahl al-kitab as refusing to accept Muhammad's teaching. An interesting verse in Sura 5 commends Christians and condemns Jews and polytheists.
   3. S.2:62, an early Medinan surah.This and other quotations from the Qur’an are taken from A. Yusuf Ali's The Holy Qur’an: Text, Translation and Commentary (Leicester: The Islamic Foundation, 1975), except where otherwise stated. Another good example is the Meccan S.29:46 forbidding disputes with the People of the Book (apart from evil-doers) and acknowledging "our God and your God is one". A very late Medinan surah contains a similar sentence though without the promise of heavenly reward (S.5:72) but is followed very soon after with explicit condemnation of those who believe Christ is God and believe in the Trinity i.e. Christians (S.5:75,76).

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       121
Strongest among men in enmity to the Believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the Believers wilt thou find those who say, 'We are Christians': because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.6
   Jews and Christians are then criticised and condemned together,7 though some scholars believe that the references to Christians were added later to passages which were originally hostile only to Jews.8 Sura 9, one of the last suras, makes a definite separation9 between Muslims on the one hand and Jews and Christians on the other.10
   Some scholars consider this apparently progressive hardening of attitude towards the ahl al-kitab to be the result of the deterioration in relations between Muslims and Jews in Medina and later the military conflict with the Byzantine
   6. S.5:85 Also, the sin of polytheists will never be pardoned according to S.4:116.
   7. For example, S.5:54 prohibits Muslims from friendship with Jews and Christians and S.2:135-141 attacks the religion of Jews and Christians
   8. Watt, W. Montgomery Muhammad at Medina (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1981) pp.317-8
   9. For example S.9:29, quoted below, which commands that people of the Book must be fought if they do not follow Muhammad's teaching
   10. Reviews of the gradually changing Qur’anic attitudes are found in Arkoun, Mohammed "The Notion of Revelation" in Havemann, Axel and Johansen, Baber (eds.) Gegenwart als Geschichte: Islamwissenschaftliche Studien (Leiden: Brill, 1988) pp.82-3 and Sherif, Faruq A guide to the contents of the Qur’an (London: Ithaca Press, 1985) pp.91-4

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Christians.11 Whatever the reason, by the time the revelations of the Qur’an ceased, there were three categories of people - Muslims, ahl al-kitab and kafirun. It was the ahl al-kitab who were eligible to become dhimmi, if conquered by Muslims. Kafirun were supposed to be eliminated altogether by conversion or killing, though this became impracticable when the Muslim armies encountered them in large numbers and they tended to be treated as ahl al-kitab.12
   The hadith mainly take a similar stance to the People of the Book as do the later Qur’anic verses i.e. they are dhimmi - protected people, paying jizya and submitting to a number of restrictions.13 With regard to the status of Christians specifically, Wijoyo describes varying attitudes according to the geographical location of the Christians concerned. Egyptian Christians were most favourably regarded, because one had given Muhammad his only male descendant. Second in favour were the Abyssinian Christians who had offered hospitality to the persecuted Meccan Muslim refugees. The Byzantine Christians - against whom many wars were fought during the Islamic conquests - receive the most unfavourable accounts in the hadith, being considered treacherous and unreliable.14
   11. Zebiri ,pp. cit. p.256
   12. Cahen, C. "Dhimma" in Encyclopaedia of lslam Vol. II (Leiden: Brill, 1983) p.227
   13. Discussed in detail by Fattal, Antoine Le Statut Legal des Non-Musulmans en Pays d'lslam (Beyrouth: Imprimerie Catholique, 1958)
   14. Wijoyo, Alex Soesilo "The Christians as religious community according to the hadit" Islamochristiana Vol. 8 (1982) pp.84-5

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       123
Jews and the Constitution of Medina
   The first dhimmi were the Jews of Khaybar, near Medina, a disparate group among whom the most prominent were the Banu ‘n-Nadir who had fled there after their expulsion from Medina in 625. They were attacked and besieged by Muhammad in 628, eventually surrendering under the terms of a treaty by which the Jews were permitted to continue cultivating their land there but had to hand over half the produce to the Muslim conquerors. About the same time similar treaties were forced on the Jewish colonies at Fadak and Wadi ‘l-Qura. In another treaty made at this time with the Jews of Tayma, the tribute levied was called jizya.15
   Such treaties were a novelty in Muhammad's dealings with Jews, since previous military engagements (with the three main Jewish tribes of Medina itself - the Qaynuqa in 624, the Banu ‘n-Nadir in 625 and the Qurayzah in 627) had resulted in the expulsion or death of the Jews concerned until there were no important groups of Jews left in Medina. There had been no option of remaining in situ and paying tribute.16
   An ancient document known as the Constitution of Medina17 includes much material about the rights and duties of Jews in Medina. The exact date of the document, preserved by Ibn Ishaq, is uncertain, though agreed to be authentically from Muhammad's period in Medina (622-632).18 The three main Jewish groups of Medina are not
   15. Watt op. cit. p.218
   16. ibid. pp.209-214, 216
   17. translation in Watt op. cit. pp.221-5
   18. The reasons for its authenticity are given by Wellhausen, Julius "Muhammads Gemeindeordnung von Medina" Skizzen und Vorarbeiten (Berlin: G. Reimer, 1884-99) Vol. IV (1889) pp.65-83, especially p.80, who dates it to 622 or 623. They are

124                   A People Betrayed
mentioned by name, although many other Jewish groups are listed, which might suggest that the document post­dates the expulsion of the Qurayzah. There are reasons for thinking that it is a collection of documents of different dates.19 The most significant feature of the Constution in the context of treatment of non-Muslims is the fact that nine Jewish groups are listed as being part of the umma, the Muslim community.20 Membership of the umma is precisely what dhimmi do not have in later Islamic legislation. Yet the Jews, though members of the umma, do not seem to be of exactly equal status with the Muslim members of the umma. They are apparently subordinate and somewhat mistrusted.21
   Much debate surrounds the definition of "umma" in the Constitution, for on this hangs, it can be argued, Muhammad's original intention for non-Muslim minorities in an Islamic state. Clearly it is not religiously defined, but does involve political and military loyalties. Humphreys discusses various arguments, including Gil's egregious assertion that the Jews were obliged to convert to Islam. Other scholars, however, agree that the Jews were allowed to retain their old religion and law.22 Matters were clearly different by the time of Umar II (717-720) who considered himself primarily a Muslim, secondarily an Umayyad and an Arab. He aimed to hold the fragile Umayyad Arab
summarised by Humphreys, R. Stephen Islamic History (London: I.B.Tauris, 1991) pp.92-8
   19. Watt op. cit. pp.225-8
   20. sections 25-33 in Watt's translation. This fact is one of the arguments for an early date for the Constitution.
   21. Humphreys op. cit. p.97
   22. ibid, pp.95-8

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       125
empire together by transforming it into a Muslim empire. His first step was, naturally, to try to persuade the non-Muslim subjects to become Muslims, offering them a lifting of jizya and equal citizenship with Muslims, irrespective of their tribe, in other words membership of the umma depended only on religion.23 The rescript he circulated to all his governors for this purpose "carries every indication of genuineness" according to Gibb.24 Some Pakistani Christians are arguing from the Constitution of Medina to assert their rights as non-Muslims.25
Christians and the Covenant of Umar
   With regard to Christians the first detailed document purports to be an agreement with the Christians of Najran, to the south of Mecca, who sent a deputation to Muhammad in 630. A peace treaty was made according to which Muhammad would not interfere with ecclesiastical affairs or property and would protect the people of Najran. In return he was to receive an annual payment of 2,000 garments of a stipulated value, and in time of war armour, horses and camels were to be lent to the Muslims, though the Christians themselves did not have to fight.26 Some scholars believe the alleged copies of this
   23. Shaban. M.A. The 'Abbasid Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970) p. 89
   24. Gibb, H.A.R. 'The Fiscal Rescript of "Umar II" Arabica Vo. II no. 1 (Leiden, January 1955) quoted in Shaban op. cit. p.89 who also quotes Gibb's translation of the rescript.
   25. Nazir, Noreen "The Concept of Ummah in the Medina Pact and its Implications on Pakistani non-Muslims" Al-Mushir Vol. 41 No. 4 (1999) passim
   26. Watt op. cit. pp. 127-8 (translations of Muhammad's letters are given on pp. 359-60)

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treaty to be a fabrication.27 Around this time Muhammad began to demand also that the Christian tribes to the north of Mecca either convert to Islam or pay tribute.28 Christians are not mentioned in the Constitution of Medina. They are however, the subject of the so-called Covenant of Umar.29 This key document is attributed by Arab historians to Caliph Umar I (634-644) - or sometimes to Umar II (717-720) - but is generally considered by Western scholars to date from the period of Abbasid rule (750-1258), perhaps around 1100.30 Whatever its origin the Covenant of Umar became the pattern for the definition and codification of the status of dhimmis, but was rarely enforced in its entirety.
   The dhimmi were considered to be beneficiaries of a treaty or dhimma, by which the Muslim community granted them hospitality and protection in return for their submission. In the Hedaya, the authoritative text-book of Hanafi law, particularly used in Pakistan and also Turkey, India, Bangladesh and parts of Central Asia, this treaty is described as a "contract of subjection".31 In the early years various regulations were imposed, differing according to local conditions, many of which appeared to be designed either to secure supplies for the victorious Muslim troops or to guard against espionage by the non-Muslims (e.g. maintaining a distinctive dress code).32 But the most characteristic and lasting stipulation was the imposition of
   27. Young Patriarch, Shah and Caliph p. 159
   28.Watt op. cit. pp.115-6, 126
   29. Discussed in Tritton, A.S. The Caliphs and their non-Muslim Subjects: A Critical Study of the Covenant of Umar (London: Oxford University Press, 1930)
   30. Lambton, Ann K.S. State and government in medieval Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981) p. 203
   31. The Hedaya Vol. 2 Book IX, pp. 221-2

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       127
a poll-tax on adult males known as jizya. This was intended to cover the costs incurred by the Muslims in protecting the dhimmi,33 or in lieu of the military service which they were not allowed, as non-Muslims, to perform34 or both.35 If a Muslim ruler failed to protect the life and property of non-Muslim citizens, he was obliged to return the jizya.36 (Muslims still recall with pride an example of this happening, when the Muslim army in the eighth century had to withdraw from various nearby cities for a campaign at a certain place in Syria thus leaving the dhimmis unprotected.)37
   Despite this reasoning, jizya was recognised by both Muslims and non-Muslims as a humiliating sign of submission.38 According to Klein it was sometimes called "captivity-tax".39 In the words of the Qur’an:
Fight those who believe not in God nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by God and His Apostle, nor acknowledge the religion of truth (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.40

   32. Cahen op. cit. p. 227
   33. Khuri, Fuad I. Imams and Emirs: State, Religion and Sects in Islam (London: Saqi Books, 1990) p. 83
   34. The Hedaya vol. II Book IX p.212
   35. Doi, Abdul Rahman I. Non-Muslims under Shari’ah (Maryland: International Graphics, 1979) p.55
   36. ibid, loc cit.
   37. Baig, Khalid "Moral World Order" Impact International (September 1998) p. 4. See also Maududi, Rights of Non Muslims pp. 23-4
   38. Doi op. cit.p.59
   39. Klein, F.A. The Religion of Islam, (London: Curzon Press Ltd, 1979) p. 176

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According to some jurists, the jizya was to be paid in a public ceremony in which the one paying was struck on the head or neck.41 Because of the subservient position implied by payment of jizya, the Banu Taghlib (a tribe of Christian Arabs who fought on the side of the Muslims) preferred to pay four times as much tax, provided it was called zakat (obligatory alms, required of Muslims according the Qur’an) and not jizya.42 Bat Ye’or summarises the symbolism of the jizya as follows:
The vanquished had to pay the victor for the right to survive in his homeland, and the product of his labour was not merely paid to the state, but was intended to finance the jihad and consolidate its acquisitions. Thus the dhimmi worked for the benefit of the power that oppressed him, and for the community from which he was excluded.43
The later-developed rules for dhimmi were stricter and mainly emphasised their inferiority, including restrictions on their buildings and mounts. The erection of new places of worship was forbidden and some outward expressions of worship, such as processions and bells, were also limited. A dhimmi man could not marry a Muslim woman although a Muslim man could marry a dhimmi woman. Children of a mixed marriage were Muslims. A dhimmi could not own
   40. S. 9:29
   41. Ibn 'Abidin iii.294, quoted in Klein op. cit. p. 176
   42. Khuri op. cit. p.83. See also the Hedaya Vol. II Book IX pp.222-3
   43. Bat Ye’or The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam revised and enlarged English edition (London: Associated University Presses, 1985) p.144

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       129
a Muslim slave although the converse was permitted. Dhimmi merchants had to pay higher customs duties. According to most schools of law, the blood-money for a dhimmi was less than that for a Muslim.44
   It is significant to note that the tightening of regulations concerning dhimmis in the late Middle Ages accompanied the growing numerical dominance of the Muslim population, who at the time of the original conquests, at least beyond Arabia, were a minority in relation to their subject peoples. Cahen points out that this was accompanied by a growing distinction between the treatment of Christians and the treatment of Jews. Christians were considered to be "friends of foreign powers" and thus were treated more harshly than Jews, who could not be so considered at that time.45 Bat Ye’or writes of a 'dhimmi syndrome' being the 'combined psychological effects of vulnerability and humiliation. Reduced in extreme cases to a precarious survival, evaluated in monetary terms, the dhimmi perceives himself and accepts himself as a dehumanized being.'46 While such language may be considered emotive it nevertheless indicates the detrimental effect on self-image which non-Muslim minorities commonly experience.
   Perhaps unexpectedly, dhimmis were not excluded from government bureaucracy. Despite hints of prohibition in
   44. Lists of the rules are given in many sources, for example the Hedaya Vol II Book IX pp. 219-222, Klein op. cit. p. 176, Khuri op. cit. pp. 84-6, Cahen op. cit. pp.227-8
   45. Cahen op. cit. p.228-9
   46. Bat Ye’or The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude (London: Associated University Presses, 1996) pp. 235-9

130                   A People Betrayed
the Qur’an47 and explicit prohibition by rulers such as Umar II (717-720) ,48 the help of non-Muslim administrators was indispensible to the Muslim rulers of the newly conquered lands. But this practice continued for centuries, for example the Assyrian Christians of Iraq and the Copts of Egypt held important positions in the administration of their respective countries.49 From time to time during the Middle Ages there were public outcries against the presence of dhimmi in high administrative positions, and a number of dhimmis converted to Islam in order to keep their positions.40 The issue of how much authority and power a non-Muslim can have in a Muslim state is one which continues to be debated, not least amongst Pakistani scholars discussing their country's mode of government. (See chapter 2.)
   Indeed, the whole issue of the rights, restrictions, role and status appropriate for dhimmis continues to be discussed by contemporary Muslim scholars. The Palestinian Ismail al-Faruqi (1921-1986), though Western educated, added to the traditional limitations on political influence, further restrictions in the areas of education, culture, social and moral issues, whose necessity arises from the assumption that modern dhimmis mix daily with Muslims, rather than living in their own fairly closed communities; thus strict regulations about public behaviour were deemed necessary by al-Faruqi to preserve the Islamic character of society.51 A contrasting Pakistani view
   47. For example S.3:28 and 5:54
   48. Lambton op. cit. p.206
   49. Cahen op. cit. p.228-9
   50. ibid, p.229
   51. Al-Faruqi op. cit.) pp. 90-102; see also discussion in Zebiri op. cit. pp.258-262

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       131
is that of Fazlur Rahman (1919-1988) who believed that the modern situation calls for a relaxation of the rules imposed on dhimmi rather than increasing the restrictions.52 A wide range of other views exist, some even more radical than that of Fazlur Rahman, but one characteristic of modern thinkers is that the classical distinction between ahl al-kitab and other non-Muslims has been abandoned by most so that the word dhimmi is usually synonymous with "non-Muslim minorities".53 It is interesting to note how the word 'minority' has acquired in some contexts the same stigma which 'dhimmi' used to have.54 Two examples of the defence of Christians indicate clearly how "minority" is sometimes used by Muslims in the sense of "second-class citizen". Thus Benazir Bhutto, as leader of the opposition and former Prime Minister, when speaking of Christian minorities in Pakistan said "I do not like referring to minorities, I believe that we are all Pakistanis".55 Similarly, Asma Jehangir, a leading lawyer with the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, said of a Pakistani Christian, "I do not think that the fact he is a Christian makes him a minority… Today we announce that there are no minorities in our country, all are citizens of
   52. His thinking on the subject is reviewed in Zebiri op. cit. pp.262-4
   53. Zebiri op. cit. pp.270-1
   54. The Christians of Malaysia and Egypt strenuously resist the use of the term "minority" to describe themselves, though they are numerically well below 50% of the population
   55. Her speech at a Seminar on the Constitutional Rights of Minorities and Women in Pakistan, held in Lahore, on October 21, 1991, is published as Bhutto, Benazir "Minorities, Women and the Political Processes" Al-Mushir Vol. 33 No. 4 (Autumn 1991) p.110

132                   A People Betrayed
Pakistan."56 Christians themselves, on the other hand, make free use of the word57 and are keen to be considered a minority as this carries with it the implication that they deserve preferential treatment like the lowest castes. For example, they would like to have fixed quotas in jobs, education etc.
   In contrast to dhimmi, who are non-Muslims conquered by Muslims, there is another class of non-Muslim within an Islamic state, the mu’ahids. They are non-Muslim minorities living within an Islamic state who were not conquered by the Muslims. They are considered to have voluntarily chosen to live in the Islamic state and to have made an agreement with the state. They are not liable to pay jizya.58 Some ulema and others argued that Christians and other non-Muslims living in Pakistan fall into this category59 but others stated that they could not be mu’ahids since no agreement had been made with them.60 Christians themselves have often argued that they are "sons of the soil", native inhabitants of Pakistan whose ancestors had
   56. Speaking at the same seminar, and published as Jehangir, Asma "Minorities and women in Pakistan" Al-Mushir Vol 33 No. 4 (Autumn 1991) p. 125
   57. For example, the National Commission for Justice and Peace entitles its human rights monitor 97 "A Report on the Religious Minorities in Pakistan".
   58. Maududi Rights of Non Muslims pp. 7-9.
   59. Ahmed, Ishtiaq op. cit. p.87; Shehab, Rafi Ullah "Status of Non-Muslims under Holy Prophet's administration" Pakistan Times (April 12, 1979) p. 4
   60. Maulana Abdul Haamid Badayuni, president of the Jami’at-ul-Ulama-i-Pakistan in Report of the Court of Inquiry p. 213

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       133
lived there as far back as they could trace, unlike many Pakistani Muslims who migrated to Pakistan from other parts of India at independence.61 In the words of Michael Nazir-Ali, speaking soon after his appointment as Bishop of Rochester, "The Christians of Pakistan have nowhere else to go. They are not from anywhere else."62 Joshua Fazl-ud-Din points out that Christian Pakistanis had not been conquered by Muslim Pakistanis, indeed had struggled side by side with them for liberty from the British, so dhimmi status is inappropriate.63 However, the mu'ahid argument is relatively rare, and is not often cited in the discussion of the status of Christians.
A third category of non-Muslims
   If Pakistani Christians have neither been conquered (dhimmi) nor made an agreement with the state (mu’ahids) then there must be a third category of non-Muslims to which they belong. Mawdudi lists the non-dhimmi non-mu'ahid non-Muslims as "those who are in the Islamic State in any other way" although he appears at a loss as to how they should be treated.64 This may also be the
   61. For example, Group Captain Cecil Choudhury, Pakistan Air Force, in a radio report on The World Tonight (BBC Radio 4, 10 June 1998); also, Moghal, Dominic "The right of dual vote for non-Muslim Pakistanis and the anxieties of the religious groups: A moment of reflection for inter-faith harmony in Pakistan" Urdu version in Al-Mushir Vol. 38 No.2 (1996), English version in Al-Mushir Vol. 39 No. 2 (1997) p.64 [of English version]; Rumalshah "Hear the cry" p. 40
   62. quoted by Shahed Sadullah in "From Raiwind to Rochester" Daily Jang, August 26, 1994
   63. Fazl-ud-Din Future of Christians p. 108
   64. Maududi Rights of Non Muslims pp. 6-7

134                   A People Betrayed
argument of Maulana Abdul Haamid Badayuni, formerly president of the Jami’at-ul-Ulama-i-Pakistan, when questioned at the Court of Inquiry which investigated serious disturbances in the Punjab in 1953, who stated that non-Muslim communities are neither dhimmis nor mu’ahids (nor citizens). Muhammad Munir, who chaired the Court of Inquiry and produced the report, condemns this response as confused but Maulana Abdul Haamid Badayuni was apparently given no opportunity to suggest what category they did fall into.65 Some Christians have argued that Pakistani Christians fall into this third category, for example, Dominic Moghal, director of the Christian Study Centre in Rawalpindi,66 and also the Catholic scholar Geijbels who calls for ijtihad to determine the status of this third type of minority in a contemporary Islamic state.67
The Shari’ah in Pakistan's legislation
   It is in the Shari’ah that the status of dhimmi is codified. The place of the Shari’ah in Pakistan's legislation is therefore of the greatest importance in determining the status of Christians.
   65. Report of the Court of Inquiry pp. 213-4
   66. Moghal, Dominic "The status of non-Muslims in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan: a confused identity" - a paper given at a seminar on 'Religious Minorities in Pakistan: struggle for identity' (July 1996) reproduced in a book of the same title ed. Moghal, Dominic and Jivan, Jennifer (Rawalpindi: Christian Study Centre, 1996) p.27
   67. Geijbels, M. 'Pakistan, Islamisation and The Christian Community. Part two: The Status and Calling of Christians' Al-Mushir Vol. XXII No. 3 (Autumn 1980) p. 105

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       135
Before independence
   Throughout the history of the subcontinent, villages have had a significant degree of autonomy. Even under the sophisticated and highly centralised Mughal government (1526-1727) law enforcement rarely reached village level. The exceptions to this were cases involving a considerable breach of the peace or cases in which revenue due to the government had not been paid.68 Thus the traditional village organization with all its Hindu institutions continued to function.69
   Under British rule, a system known as Anglo-Muhammadan law developed, which was a fusion of British common law with Islamic law. Criminal justice was administered according to the British system, but personal law for Muslims continued to be governed by the Shari’ah (often as interpreted by British judges or by Indian judges with British training). Non-Muslims were unaffected by this law, apart from those who converted away from Islam, who, for example, lost their inheritance rights. It was this Anglo-Muhammadan law which became the original legislative system of the newly independent Pakistan.70
The origin of the campaign to enforce Shari’ah
   The first constitution (1956) was carefully formulated to avoid references to the Shari’ah as the authoritative source of Islamic law. Rather, it referred to the "Holy Qur’an and the Sunna", intending to facilitate a new ijtihad, as envisaged by Muhammad Iqbal, which would be
   68. Calkins, Philip B. "A note on lawyers in Muslim India" Law and Society Review Vol. Ill No. 2 (1968/9) pp. 403-6
   69. Mehdi, Rubya op. cit. pp. 3-4
   70. ibid, pp. 4-9

136                   A People Betrayed
formulated by parliament and the courts rather than by the ulema.71 The various military and civilian governments which held power in the following two decades each made their own adjustments to the degree of attention paid by the law to Islam. The general trend, though rather superficial until 1977, was to give Islam an increasingly influential role and gradually to erode the rights of the non-Muslim minorities. (See chapter 2.)
   The campaign to enforce Shari’ah began in 1977 with the Pakistan National Alliance and their anti-secular slogan, nizam-e-Mustafa, which was taken up by Zia's military government later the same year.72 (See chapter 2.) Zia made the Islamization of the laws a primary objective.73
Shariat74 benches and the Federal Shariat Court
   In 1979 Zia created Shariat benches within the superior courts,75 and soon followed this by an amendment to the
   71. Lodhi op. cit. p.22; Ahmad, Salah-Ud-Din "Ijtihad" reprinted in All Pak. Legal Decisions Journal 1, p. l (1980)
   72. Amjad-Ali, Christine and Charles The legislative history of the Shariah Act (Rawalpindi: Christian Study Centre, 1992) p. l
   73. Khan, Justice Gul Muhammad "Islamization of the Laws in Pakistan" Presidential address at 5th Pakistan Jurists Conference/Karachi, reprinted in All Pak. Legal Decisons Vol. XXXVIII (1986) Journal 261; Korson, J. Henry 'Islamization and Social Policy in Pakistan' Journal South Asian and Middle East Studies Vol. 71 (1982) p. 72
   74. The Persian version of the Arabic "shariah", ending with 't' is often used in Pakistan.
   75. President's Order 22 of 2 December 1978, Shariat Benches of Superior Courts Order, 1978, with effect from February 10, 1979 reprinted in All Pakistan Legal Decisions Vol. XXX (1978) Central Statutes 6

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       137
constitution to establish this reform.76 According to Chapter 3-A, inserted into the 1973 constitution, Shariat benches were to be created within the High Courts when required to "decide the question whether or not any law or provision of the law is repugnant to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet"77 and this was to be done "notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution".78 Laws which were found not to conform with the injunctions of Islam were to be amended.79 An explanatory note, however, excluded from the jurisdiction of Shariat benches virtually any kind of law which they might have been expected to examine. It ran: "In this Chapter, 'law' includes any custom or usage having the force of law but does not include the Constitution, Muslim personal law, any law relating to the procedure of any Court or Tribunal or, until the expiration of three years from the commencement of this Chapter, any fiscal law, or any law relating to the collection of taxes and fees or banking or insurance practice and procedure."80 It is interesting to note the use of the word "Shariat" in the name of these benches. Although their task was defined as comparing the laws of Pakistan with the Qur’an and Sunnah (not with the Shari’ah), perhaps the very name indicates the beginning of a shift away from the concept of a new
   76. President's Order 3 of 1979, section 2, with effect from February 7, 1979
   77. Article 203-B of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, as inserted by Presidential Order 3 of 1979
   78. Article 203-A of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, as inserted by Presidential Order 3 of 1979
   79. Article 203-B (4)(a) of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, as inserted by Presidential Order 3 of 1979
   80. Explanation appended to article 203-B

138                   A People Betrayed
ijtihad and towards the use of the classical Shari’ah.
   This effectively toothless constitutional provision was then ostensibly strengthened by General Zia in 1980 by the creation of a Federal Shariat Court.81 This Court had the same role82 accompanied by the same limitations as the Shariat benches had had. The Shariat Court had jurisdiction "notwithstanding anything in the Constitution" to 'examine and decide the question whether or not any law or provision of law is repugnant to the Injunctions of Islam, as laid down in the Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet'.83 Further amendments to the Constitution with regard to the Federal Shariat Court were made in 1982, 1984 and 1985, which considerably strengthened its power. It gained the power to initiate examination of laws of its own volition84 and the power to review any decisions or procedures of any other court enforcing hadd crimes, and to "enhance the sentence" if necessary.85 Many laws, however, were still excluded from its jurisdiction.86
   81. Constitution (Amendment) Presidential Order 1 of 1980, section 3
   82. Article 203-D of the 1973 Constitution, as amended by Presidential Order 1 of 1980
   83. Pakistan Constitution of 1973, article 203-D, amended 1982, in Mahmood, Safdar op. cit. p. 938-41
   84. Article .203-D section (1) of the Pakistan Constitution, amended by Constitution (Second Amendment) Presidential Order 5 of 1982
   85. Pakistan Constitution of 1973, Article 203DD section (2)
   86. Article 203-B (c) reads: "law" includes any custom or usage having the force of law but does not include the Constitution, Muslim personal law, any law relating to the procedure of any Court or Tribunal or, until the expiration of ten years from the commencement of this Chapter, any fiscal

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       139
By 1986 the Shariat Court had found portions of 55 federal laws (out of 512 examined) and 212 provincial laws (out of 999 examined) to be contrary to the Shari’ah.87 These were mostly family and fiscal laws, but also included a whole range of constitutional, criminal and civil laws.
Hudood Ordinances and the Law of Evidence (Qanoon-e-Shahadat)
   In 1979 a number of Hudood Ordinances were put into effect, enforcing hadd penalties88 for the offences of drinking intoxicants (including drugs),89 theft,90 adultery,91 and false accusation of adultery.92 This was followed by legislation concerning the Islamic punishment of whipping,93 the payment by Muslims of zakat (compulsory
law or any law relating to the levy and collection of taxes and fees or banking insurance practice and procedure;
   87. Khan, Justice Gul Muhammad op. cit. pp. 264-5
   88. A hadd crime is an offence against the "boundaries" set by God, with a fixed punishment as stated in the Qur’an (or in the case of drinking alcohol, the ahadith) from which no deviation is allowed.
   89. President's Order 4 of 1979, Prohibition (Enforcement of Hadd) Order, 1979 reprinted in All Pakistan Legal Decisions, Vol. XXXI (1979) Central Statutes 33-41 (1979)
   90. Ordinance VI of 1979, Offences Against Property (Enforcement of Hudood) Ordinance, 1979 reprinted in All Pakistan Legal Decisions Vol. XXXI (1979) Central Statutes 144-51
   91. Ordinance VII of 1979, Offence of Zina (Enforcement I of Hudood) Ordinance, 1979 reprinted in All Pakistan Legal Decisions Vol. XXXI (1979) Central Statutes 51-56
   92. Ordinance VIII of 1979, Offence of Qazf (Enforcement I of Hadd) Ordinance, 1979 reprinted in All Pakistan Legal Decisions Vol. XXXI (1979) Central Statutes 56-60
   93. Ordinance IX of 1979, Execution of the Punishment of

140                   A People Betrayed
alms) and ushr (tithes),94 and the enforcement of the Ramadan fast.95
   The administration of justice under Islamic law depends heavily on the number of qualified witnesses who give evidence in court. In 1984 President Zia promulgated the Qanoon-e-Shahadat (Law of Evidence) which replaced a previous Law of Evidence dating from 1872. This had a grave effect on Christians and other non-Muslims because of the following proviso concerning who is competent to appear as a witness in a Court of Law:
Provided further that the Court shall determine the competence of a witness in accordance with the qualifications prescribed by the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Holy Quran and Sunnah for a witness, and, where such witness is not forthcoming, the court may take the evidence of a witness who may be available.96
This would give a judge trying a hadd case the freedom to define women as half-witnesses in comparison with men.97 (It is relevant here to note that Article 17 specifies that business transactions require two male witnesses or one
Whipping Ordinance, 1979 reprinted in All Pakistan Legal Decisions Vol. XXXI (1979) Central Statutes 60-62
   94. Ordinance XXIX of 1979, Zakat and Ushr (Organisation) Ordinance, 1979, reprinted in All Pakistan Legal Decisions, Vol. XXXI (1979) Central Statutes 277-285
   95. Ordinance XXIII of 1981, Ehtram-E-Ramazan Ordinance, 1981, reprinted in All Pakistan Legal Decisions Vol. XXXIII (1981) Central Statutes 278
   96. Law of Evidence Order, 1984, Chapter II, section 3, quoted in Dawood op. cit. p. 113
   97. based on Sura 2:282 "… and get two witness out of your own men, And if there are not two men, Then a man and two women …"

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       141
male and two female - four female witnesses are not allowed.) Likewise non-Muslims can be defined as half-witnesses in comparison with Muslims, making the evidence of a non-Muslim woman worth only a quarter of the evidence of a Muslim man. Furthermore, under the Hudood Ordinances there are certain cases in which women and non-Muslims are not admissible as witnesses at all98 (see below). The effects of this on Christians brought to court under the Hudood Ordinances are clearly very negative. A report by the International Commission of Jurists in 1985 wrote of the inequalities resulting from the Hudood Ordinances:
… this is not being done on an entirely even handed basis since Muslims can give evidence against non-Muslims but not vice versa and, while the Presiding Officer in a trial of a non-Muslim for any of the offences other than 'Qazf'' 99 must also be a non-Muslim, an appeal to the Federal Shariat Court will be heard by exclusively Muslim Judges. At least in some respects, therefore these ordinances may offend against the constitutional guarantees of freedom and equality before the law, but they are possibly immune from constitutional challenge because of the validation given to all the ordinances made by the President during Martial Law through the introduction of Article 270A(3) into the Constitution …100

   98. Dawood op. cit. p. 111-123; Mehdi, Rubya op. cit. pp. 147-150; Bouma, Gees "Pakistan's Islamization 1977-88: The Zia Era in Retrospect" in Al-Mushir Vol.31 No. 1 (Spring 1989) p. 21
   99. false accusation of adultery
   100. Pakistan After Martial Law a report by the International Commission of Jurists, 1985 pp. 101-2, quoted in Shahani op. cit. p.4

142                   A People Betrayed
Qisas and Diyat Ordinance
   In 1990 the Shari’ah law of retaliation by causing similar hurt (qisas) and compensation (diyat) for murder and intentional bodily harm had been introduced by means of a presidential ordinance.101 This law had been in preparation since Zia directed the Council of Islamic Ideology to start work on a draft in 1979, and had passed through numerous other committees and bodies.102 The law caused resentment amongst Pakistani women because the diyat for female victims was only one half of the diyat of male victims, and because women were not admissible as witnesses in murder cases.103 Christians were alarmed by the implication that, following the pattern of the Shari’ah, they would be considered to be worth only half the diyat of Muslims.104 The Ordinance was not considered by Parliament and therefore lapsed after four months.105
   In April 1997 an amended version was passed by Parliament, which had no discriminatory references to women or non-Muslims.106
   101. Criminal Law (Second Amendment) Ordinance (No. VII of 1990) published in Gazette of Pakistan Extraordinary (5 September 1990) and reprinted in Mehdi, Rubya op. cit. pp. 298-323
   102. Amin, Mohammad Islamization of Laws in Pakistan (Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 1989) pp. 82-3
   103. Mehdi, Rubya op. cit. pp. 152-3
   104. Shahani op. cit. pp. 7-8
   105. According to Article 89 (2) of the 1973 Constitution concerning the promulgation of ordinances by the president
   106. Criminal Law (Amendment) Act (II of 1997) which substituted new sections 299 to 338 in the Pakistan Penal Code, available in an edition with commentary by Nizami, Muhammad Mazhar Hassan (Lahore: PLD Publishers, 1998) pp. 277-321 |

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       143
The Eighth and Ninth Amendments
   In 1985 General Zia introduced an Eighth Amendment to the constitution which served the dual purpose of ratifying various of his past actions and furthering the Islamization of the legislation.  This amendment provided a constitutional basis for the separate electorates system (see chapter 4), and incorporated the Objectives Resolution as an integral part of the constitution,107 rather than simply a preamble. Thus the clause stating that "Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah" became legally obligatory (see chapter 2).108
   The conservative religious groups considered the Eighth Amendment inadequate, since it did not extend the powers of the Federal Shariat Court to cover fiscal laws, Muslim personal laws and the judicial system; they voted for it only on condition that the government would introduce legislation to deal with this issue at a later date. When the government appeared to be delaying on this, two senators, Qazi Latif and Maulana Sami-ul-Haq, introduced a private Shariat Bill into the Senate on 13 July 1985. While this bill was at the committee stage, the government proposed a Ninth Amendment to the constitution which covered the areas that the conservative religious groups had considered lacking in the Eighth Amendment. The Ninth Amendment bill declared that "the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Holy Quran and Sunnah shall be the supreme law and
   107. Amjad Ali, Christine and Charles The legislative history p. 2
   108. Pakistan Constitution of 1973, article 2A (amended 1985) in Mahmood, Safdar p. 842

144                   A People Betrayed
source of guidance for legislation to be administered through laws enacted by the Parliament and provincial assemblies, and for policy making by the Government".109 It allowed the Shariat Court to examine any law at all, excluding only the Constitution from its jurisdiction.110 It also mandated that taxes, banking and insurance law be brought into "conformity with the injunctions of Islam".111 The Ninth Amendment bill was passed unanimously by the Senate on 9 July 1986, but before it had finished its passage through parliament, Zia dissolved the National Assembly and dismissed the government (May 29, 1988). One of the stated grounds for the President's action was the failure of the government to Islamize the country. The Sami-Latif Shariat bill, having suffered major criticism by the select committee, had continued to be circulated for further comment and had also failed to become law.112
The Enforcement of Shari’ah Act (1991)
   The newly developed power relationship between Parliament and the Federal Shariat Court - in which the law-making role of Parliament was subordinate to the law-checking role of the Federal Shariat Court - was reinforced by the Enforcement of Shari’ah Ordinance of 1988, promulgated by President Zia.113 This stated that Shari’ah shall be the '"supreme source of law in Pakistan and grund
   109. Clause 2 of the Ninth (Constitutional) Amendment Bill
   110. Clause 3 of the Ninth (Constitutional) Amendment Bill
   111. Clause 4 of the Ninth (Constitutional) Amendment Bill
   112. Amjad Ali, Christine and Charles The legislative history pp.2-3
   113. Enforcement of Shari’ah (revised) Ordinance, 1988 reprinted in All Pak. Legal Decisions Vol. XLI (1989) Central Statutes 18

The Concept of Dhimmi in Theory and Practice       145
norm (sic) for policy making of the state" (clause 3).114 The ordinance lapsed after Zia's death in August 1988115 but its text formed the basis of the bill which was later passed as the Enforcement of Shari’ah Act (1991).116
   After Zia's death, a Pakistan People's Party government (1988-90) was formed by Benazir Bhutto, having been voted into power. This government had no intention of furthering the lapsed Shari’ah legislation and sought, indeed, to repeal the Eighth Amendment. Nevertheless Qazi Latif and Maulana Sami-ul-Haq introduced another private bill, called The Enforcement of Shariah Bill, on 26 March 1989. Although based largely on General Zia's Shari’ah Ordinance this bill went a significant step further in speaking of the Shariah as the "supreme law in Pakistan" rather than the 'supreme source of law in Pakistan and grund norm (sic) for policy making of the state'. The bill was referred to a special committee, which made amendments and presented it to the Senate on 13 May 1990, which promptly passed it. However, the passage of the bill through Parliament was halted once again by the dissolution of the National Assembly and the dismissal of the government (6 August 1990).117
   A new Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI, Islamic Democratic
   114. Amjad Ali, Christine and Charles The legislative history p.4
   115. Pakistan Constitution of 1973, article 89, clause (1) (a) declares that a presidential ordinance will stand repealed four months after its promulgation
   116. Enforcement of Shari’ah Act, 1991, reprinted in All Pak. Legal DecisionsVol. XLIII (1991) Central Statutes 373-378
   117. Amjad Ali, Christine and Charles The legislative history pp.4-6

146                   A People Betrayed
Alliance, formerly the Pakistan National Alliance) government was formed after elections in October 1990. While in opposition the IJI had spoken out in favour of the Enforcement of Shari’ah Bill, and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif now formed a committee to examine the bill again.
   Many minority groups, women's groups, human rights groups and Shi'a groups were strongly opposed to the bill.118 They perceived a threat to the constitutional guarantee that all citizens are equal before the law and entitled to equal protection under the law. Another objection centred on the immense power to be given to the ulema, who could be appointed as judges, friends of court and lawyers, to interpret and determine what is, or is not, in accordance with Shari’ah; this would have effectively shifed [? shifted] the legislative power from parliament to non-elected individuals chosen by the president. A third objection concerned the vagueness of definition of the Shari’ah; a conservative rather than a progressive interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah was indicated but it was felt that the lack of precision would be likely to lead to conflicts between followers of different schools of Islam.119
   118. Bouma, Gees "Ninth Amendment and Shariat Bill" Al-Mushir Vol. XXVIII No. 4 (Winter 1986) pp. 163-5; 'IJI determined to adopt Shariat Bill' Frontier Post (28 December 1990) p.l t"
   119. "Observations, comments and reactions to the Shariat Bill submitted by the Christian group, meeting with the Shariat Bill Committee on 27th December 1990" signed by Bishop Alexander John Malik of Lahore Diocese of the Church of Pakistan and Rev. Dr Charles Amjad-Ali, director of the Christian Study Centre, Rawalpindi; letter to Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on the subject of "Problems arising for Christians from the Shariat Bill" from Bishops Trinidade, Malik, Lobo, Pereira, Joseph and Azariah (4th December 1990)

   FOOTNOTE: And on the chapter goes, to page 187. This book and others like it ought to be in the hands of parliamentarians, political parties, academics, and leaders of religions around the world. END. (Scanned and to this webpage on 12 and 15 Sep 05.)
   For a selection of scripture texts used by some Islamists and others, click Submission Texts.
   The Noble Koran in three translations at dept/MSA/quran/ ; compare also with www.hti.umich. edu/k/koran , http://etext. lib.virginia. edu/koran.html , and http://i-cias. com/e.o/texts/ religion/ koran003.htm . The numbering of surahs (verses) differs between various translations. [2002]

• Islam, itself, is the problem: (Aug 1, 2002).  As reported by Umar b. Abd al-Aziz, Muhammad's last words on his death bed were, "Perish the Jew and the Christians…Beware, there should be no two faiths in Arabia." …
   A majority of Muslims across the globe do not support violence, but that does not mean that it is not a logical outworking of Islam, nonetheless. …
   Lastly, it is not true that militant Islam is a new phenomenon. The violent conquest against the infidel was present at its inception. That is what enabled Islam to spread throughout the Middle East and North Africa within 100 years after Muhammad's death. It spread into the Iberian Peninsula and almost conquered Vienna. …
   I am not saying here that Muslims are evil at all. I cherish my friendships with those in my life who profess Islam, but I believe that Islam's logical outworking is compulsion, totalitarianism, and violence is not inconsistent with it. – GB Gaskin (hindleg1@, www.daniel comments/ 1596 [Aug 1, 02]
• 13 family members charged over Egyptian clan feud murders.  Egypt flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 

13 family members charged over Egyptian clan feud murders

   Australian Broadcasting Corporation, au/news/news items/200209/ s663819.htm , Sunday, September 1, 2002
   EGYPT: Thirteen Egyptians from the same family will go on trial for the murder of 22 members of a rival clan last month.
   The 13 men from the Abdel-Halim family ambushed a mini-bus driven by the Hunayshat family, near the town of Sohag.
   They sprayed it with automatic weapons fire.
   The attack was the culmination of an 11-year feud between two clans.
   If convicted all 13 men will face the death sentence. #
   [DOCTRINE, Eye for eye, etc: 5:45 (or 5:49) .   ENDS.] [Sep 1, 02]

• Austrian bishop calls Islam 'fanatical';  Austria flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   The Washington Times, www.washtimes. com/world/ 20021028- 5799051.htm , Oct 28, 2002
   VIENNA, Austria – Austrian Roman Catholic Bishop Kurt Krenn called Islam a fanatical religion in a magazine interview published yesterday.
   The bishop of St. Poelten told the weekly newsmagazine Profil that Roman Catholicism was in competition with Islam, citing census figures showing the percentage of Catholics in Austria was falling as the percentage of Muslims rose.
   "Islam is not stronger, just more fanatical. And it is not the true religion, anyway," Bishop Krenn told Profil.
   [COMMENT: Bishop Kurt Krenn was disgraced later over flippant comments he made about pictures of seminary teachers having sexual frolics with student priests. COMMENT ENDS.] [Oct 28, 02]

• "Serve jail time for religious insults?"        Michel Houellebecq may have been guilty, but I'm still glad he was acquitted. The award-winning novelist, who has been dubbed "a literary Eminem" and "the Ozzy Osbourne of modern French letters," stood accused of inciting religious hatred, an offence that in France carries a sentence of up to 18 months. The evidence against him consisted of derogatory remarks about Islam. … Art can talk, apparently, but artists need to keep their mouths shut. And what about journalists? The Italian writer Oriana Fallaci faces charges in France because of The Rage and the Pride, her post-September 11 polemic against Islam. Too bad for her she's not a fictional character. -- The Washington Times, www.washtimes. com/commentary/ 20021029- 71145704.htm , By Jacob Sullum, a senior editor at Reason magazine (he is a nationally syndicated columnist), Oct 29 02
• "There's no place for vengeance over Bali."      AUSTRALIA: On 13 October I heard news of the Bali bombing. What a hateful violence it is that has brought about the deaths of innocent people. Now in nearby suburbs, families mourn, and our whole nation is in shock and fear. … Finally, we belong to an alternative or counter culture, espousing the most radical and seemingly odd ways. This is the way that calls us to not repay evil for evil, but to 'overcome evil with good', perhaps by repairing a damaged world. … we hold to reconciliation and seek to turn foes into friends. … – Western Impact, Uniting Church monthly, Perth, W. Australia, "There's no place for vengeance over Bali," Moderator's Column, by Gemmel Sherwood, November 2002, p 2
• Hundreds of thousands die in Sudan, civilians and military. Sudan / Soudan flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   Western Impact, Perth, W. Australia, "Sudan: the forgotten war," p 4, November 2002 PERTH: Khartoum-based Arab Muslims in the north want to extend Islam throughout the largely African Christian south. Attacks on villages and air raids are used. Thousands have fled into neighbouring Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, etc., being cared for by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR). Perth has a growing Sudanese population as a result of the war. In 1993 and 1994 the Sudan Relief & Rehabilitation Association (SRRA) sent two shipments of medical supplies to the headquarters in Kenya. Now SRRA believes that money sent to Kenya to buy supplies there would save freight. SRAA, c/o Anglican Social Responsibilities Commission, GPO Box C 138, Perth WA 6839. [November 2002]
• Flag's Crosses Affront Some Residents; Don't burn Australian flag – Anderson
  Australia flag; 
Don’t burn Australian flag – Anderson


 Australia flag; 
By Colin Fortune, November 5, 2002, with later amendments
   Deputy Prime Minister John Anderson (National Party) wants a law introduced to fine people who burn the Australian flag. 1 Does he know that there are 280,000 to 500,000 people living in Australia right now whose religion makes them feel opposition to publicly-displayed crosses?
   The Southern Cross, and the Union Jack (a triple cross!), would have to be removed if the "committed Muslims" 2 who fully support the rightness of the "claims of Islam" started to campaign strongly against them. As it says in the first of their religious books, the Koran: "…strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites and be unyielding to them…" and do not befriend the Jews and the Christians. 3  Commonly used symbols such as the royal crown, and the Red Cross and St John Ambulance have crosses. However, there are no crosses on the flags of countries that the Arabs invaded and Muslimised in the 7th century in the Near East and north Africa, which had been Christian for some centuries.
   Melbourne Cup Day today! Did you enjoy the electronic coverage, or celebrate a win with a drink? The Muslim religion forbids gambling and drinking wine, at least officially! Revering pictures of divine or saintly beings is forbidden, and "idols" must be destroyed (remember the wondrous gigantic Buddha statues blown up by the Taliban in Afghanistan?). Like Christian and other idol-destroyers and invaders for hundreds of years, Muslims for centuries have been invading and remaking the world to their own image. Is this the future you want for Australia?
   The Sep 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon in the U.S.A., the anti-Australian Bali bombing of Oct 12, 2002, and the recent Moscow theatre hostage outrage (Chechen "freedom fighters"?) were carried out by people who believed sacred texts about killing, crucifying, beheading, de-limbing, or slaying disbelievers.
   An Australian Muslim newsletter writes that "the Icon of the Holy Struggle is called Osama bin Laden", 4 who is the leader of the Al Qaida violent terror group which carried out and/or praised the September 11 2001 attacks on America. The U.S.A. and Australia etc. attacked Afghanistan to capture him "dead or alive," but a videotape by him appeared recently. A car in Yemen, supposedly carrying Al Qaida key leader Ali Qaed Sinian al-Harithi, exploded on Nov 5 – some said explosives aboard blew up, but later it was reported that the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had fired a missile. 5  No trial!  Suspected Islamic militants used grenades on the home of the new Chief Minister of Indian-occupied Kashmir (the Islamic-named Mufti Mohammed Sayeed), and killed another politician elsewhere. 6  By extremists of all beliefs, collaborators and "turncoats" attract particular venom. We are told: "…there are strands within Islam that advocate violence on the basis of the sacred texts." 7
   A terrorist strike "on Australian soil is a question of when, not if," says Greg Sheridan in The Weekend Australian, 8 and he encourages raids by the Australian Securities and Intelligence Organisation (ASIO). If only one per cent of the 280,000 to 500,000 in Australia decide to try to violently change our society, that would make a "Fifth Column" of 2800 to 5000. Australia would have to become an ASIO-controlled police state with continuing dawn raids in order to bottle them up and lessen the number of terrorist murders. So, now you know why Australia from the early 1900s had a "Restricted Immigration Policy," because our forefathers knew of the dangers of cultural clashes, where civil liberties and community peace nearly always fall apart.
   Would you support repatriation for all immigrants whose belief systems make them intensely dislike or despise our kind of society? The Islamic newsletter Al Haq, published by Jaya Basri, opposes promiscuity on Australian television, and criticises Israel and America.4  But, there are also sincere Christians etc. who oppose televised promiscuity. Some reformers of right and left oppose American and other Big Business's outrageous greed and unfair trade dealings (the attitude is somewhat similar to Britain's Opium Wars against China years ago), and violence broke out at a 2000 World Economic Forum meeting in Melbourne. Some reformers oppose the unending U.S.A. and world support for Israel. The Israelis fund colonies (settlements) in what's left of Palestine instead of returning land to the indigenous people, and have invaded and held territory in Egypt (since left) and Lebanon and Syria (still occupying the Golan Heights). They assassinate terrorist leaders without trial. Will it become illegal to protest about these attacks on the rule of law?
   I'll bet that Mr Anderson's National Party supported the "anti-discrimination" legislation, being regularly stiffened, which probably makes many newsitems published after the Lebanese gang rape trials in Australia and the Bali bombings of October 12, 2002, illegal because they "could induce hatred" of people of some race, religion, ethnicity, national origin, colour, etc. In fact, disapproval of any culture which forces females into arranged marriages and has cruel and unusual punishments, or this leaflet too, might be "illegal" – so stop reading it right now! FlagVMuslims 5 Nov 02 (amended ,6,7,8,13Nov,09Dec2002; 11Feb,19Aug2003; 13Mar,14Jul2004; 17Feb07)
1. The West Australian, "Save the flag," Ben Ruse, Tuesday November 5, 2002, page 1
2. Comment codifying Muslims by ANU Emeritus Professor Tony Johns, in The West Australian, "Pamphlets praise bin Laden," (Sydney Morning Herald), Tue Nov 5, 2002, page 4
3. The Koran, , 9.73 and 5.51; and see 2.191, 5.33, 8.12, 9.5, 9.123
4. The West Australian, "Pamphlets praise bin Laden," Tue Nov 5, 2002, p 4
5. The West Australian, "CIA assassinates bin Laden's key aide," (Los Angeles Times), Wed Nov 6, 2002, p 9
6. The West Australian, "Kashmiri politician shot," Mon Nov 4, 2002, p 23
7. The Weekend Australian, "Let's declare our independence," Paul Kelly, Nov 2-3, 2002, p 28
8. The Weekend Australian, "Bali 2002, anatomy of an atrocity," Foreign Editor Greg Sheridan, Nov 2-3, 2002, pp 19, 24
   [AFTER-WORD: In 2007, PM John Howard's choice for Muslim Reference Group, Mr Ameer Ali, was reported as urging Muslims in Australia to fly the Australian flag on mosques.  This was vigorously opposed by other Islamic leaders.  (Read "Muslims push for flags on mosques,"    The Weekend Australian, www.the australian. story/0,208 67,21239882- 601,00.html ; p 1, February 17-18, 2007.  ENDS.]
   [DOCTRINE: KORAN 8:30:- … the unbelievers plotted against thee … but Allah plotted: and of plotters is Allah the best!
   51:9:- But whoso turneth him from the truth, is turned from it by a divine decree.
   66:2:- Allah hath allowed you release from your oaths. …   ENDS.]
[Nov 5, 02]

• WAR DECLARED – Australia included for helping free East Timor and opposing terror:        Translation of the alleged Bin Laden Tape of November 13, 2002
   The operations on Germans in Tunisia, the explosion of the French tanker in Yemen, on the French in Karachi, the operations against the Marines in Failaka [Kuwait], on Australians and Britons in the explosions in Bali, as well as the recent hostage-taking in Moscow and other operations here and there - were nothing but the response of Muslims eager to defend their religion and respond to the order of God and their Prophet.
   … what Israel, the ally of America, did in bombing houses of the elderly, women and children in Palestine, using American planes, was enough for the wise among your leaders to distance themselves from this criminal gang.
   … Why did your governments ally themselves with America to attack us in Afghanistan, and I cite in particular Great Britain, France, Italy, Canada, Germany and Australia. Australia was warned about its participation [in the war] in Afghanistan and its ignoble contribution to the separation of East Timor [from Indonesia]. But it ignored this warning until it was awakened by the echoes of explosions in Bali. Its government subsequently pretended, falsely, that its citizens were not targeted.
   As you assassinate, so will you be [assassinated], and as you bomb so will you likewise be.
   Finally, we pray to God to aid us that His religion might triumph, and pursue the jihad unto death, so as to merit His mercy. – Idaho Independent Media Center: http://208.39. 216.125/news/ 2002/11/207_ comment.php#231 , Wednesday November 13, 2002
[See also The Weekend Australian, "He's back," November 16-17, 2002, p 19. For the Dec 2001 videotape transcript, CNN: http://asia. US/12/13/ret. bin.laden. videotape/] [Nov 13, 02]
• Trouble At The Mosque.    BRITAIN: Investigative report showing that bullying and threats have led to removal of peace-loving leadership of some Moslem mosques in Britain. Starting with the North Finchbury Mosque in London, a notorious hotbed of Islamist activism, and then leading to other mosques in Gloucester, Glasgow, Luton, and elsewhere, the programme shows how mismanagement and a lack of centralised authority for Islamic worship in Britain can result in ideological, financial, and sexual abuses that are un-Islamic and unhealthy. – Compass, Australian Broadcasting Commission television, au/compass/ s728877.htm , au/compass/ index/compass recentidx. htm , November 17 2002
• [Public opposes illegals' children at schools, but R.C. bishop wants them.]      SOUTH AUSTRALIA: Bishop Eugene Hurley of Port Pirie is pressing the Federal Government to let asylum seeker children from the Baxter Detention Centre attend the local Catholic School, saying he is distressed by the messages that emerged from Port Augusta last week.  The city's mayor, Joy Baluch, says strong community opposition has stalled the Federal Government's plans for Baxter children to study at local state schools.  Ms Baluch said the bishop should steer clear of politics. – The Record, Perth, "Bishop's push to get asylum seekers in Catholic schools," Nov 21 2002, p 4
Loud silence on Jihad. PERTH: I support [V.W.] (14 Nov) for opposing the idea that "jihad" or "holy war" of the Muslims against other religions is opposed by 99.9 per cent of Muslims. … There are many U.S. and Israeli injustices – but killing people indiscriminately by blowing up Indonesian and African churches, nightclubs in Israel and Bali, and a U.S. barracks, or shooting people returning from prayers is not God's way. Did Muslim world leaders condemn the "fatwa" or "religious murder order" the Iranian leaders declared against a novelist [Salman Rushdie]? The November 13 tape by Osama Bin Laden named six countries including Australia as targets of assassinations and bombings. Did the whole official Muslim leadership worldwide declare a "fatwa" against Osama Bin Laden for his messages filled with hate and error? – The Record, Perth, [X.Y.] letter, p 7, Nov 21, 2002
[COMMENT: Was the Rushdie fatwa condemned? No. Was Bin Laden's hate tape against six countries condemned? No. COMMENT ENDS] [Nov 21, 02]
• Middle East Studies After September 11  United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 

Middle East Studies After September 11

   Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, http://fp. mesassoc/ Bulletin/ Pres%20Ad dresses/ Beinin.htm , by Prof. Joel Beinin, November 24, 2002
Middle East Studies After September 11
(2002 MESA Presidential Address) 
Joel Beinin, Professor of History, Stanford University, MESA President, 2002
©2002 by the Middle East Studies Association of North America. No portions of this address may be quoted or reproduced in any manner without express permission of the author.
   The office of MESA president is mainly honorific; the associated duties are normally not particularly onerous. The very capable staff of the secretariat does most of the hard work involved in running this organization. None of you could have known at the time of the MESA elections in the summer and early fall of 2000 that you would be giving me the opportunity to serve as your president in the post-September 11, 2001 era, when public interest in the Middle East, demands on those with expertise in the region, and incongruously, attacks on MESA, university-based programs in Middle East Studies, and more than a few individual MESA members have reached unprecedented levels. Serving as your president in this period has been a more exciting ride than it would have been at almost any other time I can imagine; I thank you all for making it possible. I would also like to acknowledge my wife Miriam, who also received a fuller plate than she could have imagined as a result of my serving as MESA president. Her support has always been indispensable in everything I have done.
   Many people have said that September 11 "changed everything." At the risk of appearing callous and insensitive, I would like to suggest that this is not exactly so. Of course, September 11 did "change everything" for the 3,000 victims who perished at the Twin Towers and the Pentagon that day as well as for their families. Their loss can never be restored. Many others close to ground zero suffered intense trauma that may well have long term repercussions. But these personal losses are not the usual referent of the assertion that September 11 "changed everything."
   There has also been substantial erosion of our civil liberties and of public tolerance for dissent since September 11. Our government is holding hundreds of individuals without charges and without allowing them access to a lawyer. Just this week a federal appeals court has greatly expanded the powers of criminal prosecutors to use wiretaps obtained from intelligence operations in prosecuting national security cases. Hate crimes against Muslims and Arabs in the United States and Canada have increased. Arabs and Muslims traveling to the United States – even those who have visited previously and have no connection to organizations advocating politically motivated violence of any sort have been subjected to onerous screening processes to obtain a visa. Several individuals who expected to participate in this meeting were prevented from doing so. Others stayed away fearing they would be harassed or humiliated. Some university administrations have publicly criticized or sanctioned faculty members for expressing opinions critical of U.S. Middle East policy. Self-appointed guardians of patriotic rectitude have attempted to prescribe the proper way to study Islam and the Middle East, if not to proscribe it altogether. Neo-conservative propagandists have launched a McCarthyite-style smear campaign against MESA and some our most prominent members. But those who have asserted that September 11 "changed everything" are not principally preoccupied by these matters.
   Most of those who make this claim seem to mean that Americans can no longer feel secure living in a fortress immune to the dangers and uncertainties of the world. Many Americans have believed that our country was uniquely protected by God, geography, or military might. But that sense of invulnerability was illusory. The United States is not somehow uniquely protected from the consequences of its actions in the world. The belief system of those who thought otherwise was devastatingly undermined on September 11.
   However, September 11 was not the first time in recent history that Americans have been shocked and surprised by Middle East-related events. The lesson that what the United States does and does not do in the Middle East can have severe consequences for our people and our interests could and should have been learned some time ago. It was not. Hence, it is far from certain that we will draw the appropriate conclusions from the pain and distress we experienced on September 11.
   Following the Iranian revolution and the overthrow of Muhammad Reza Shah, the U.S. embassy in Teheran was overrun on November 4, 1979 by militants claiming to follow the line of Ayatollah Khomeini. Fifty-two embassy staffers were taken hostage, precipitating a crisis that persisted for 444 days until January 20, 1981. The immediate impetus for the seizure of the embassy was the news that the ousted Shah had arrived in the United States for medical treatment. The militants demanded that he be returned to Iran.
   In 1953 this same Shah had fled Iran following a botched coup by the CIA which sought to remove the nationalist government of Muhammad Mosaddeq because it had nationalized Iran's oil. The CIA and its local allies regrouped; the coup succeeded; and Muhammad Reza Shah was restored to the Peacock Throne. Hence, the notion that the Shah's arrival in the United States was part of a plan to return him to power, although unsubstantiated, was not outlandish.
   The seizure of the American embassy in Teheran was a manifestation of the internal struggle within the Iranian revolutionary regime. Through such public dramas, Ayatollah Khomeini consolidated his leadership, imposed rule by mullahs loyal to him, and eliminated other elements of the revolutionary coalition that overthrew the monarchy from access to power. Relatively little of that story was prominently reported in the American mass media.
   At a press conference in February 1980 an exceptionally bold reporter asked President Jimmy Carter if the CIA's restoration of the Shah to power in 1953 might have something to do with arousing the Iranian anti-American sentiment that expressed itself in the hostage crisis. Carter replied that this was "ancient history" and that it was not "appropriate or helpful" to discuss it. Such willful historical amnesia, which is so deeply rooted in American culture and politics, enables assertions like "everything has changed."
   One thread of this story leads, a few years later, to Israel's invasion of Lebanon in the summer of 1982. Ariel Sharon, then Israel's Minister of Defense, was the godfather of the strategy of invading Lebanon to destroy Palestinian national sentiment and pave the way for Israel's annexation of the West Bank. U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig hoped that this adventure would contribute to building an anti-Soviet strategic consensus in the Middle East, a miscalculation which was one of the factors that led to his resignation. After receiving a "green light" from the Reagan administration, Israel fabricated a pretext for launching its invasion.
   The hostilities were concluded with an agreement that the PLO would evacuate its fighters from Lebanon while the United States would guarantee the security of the Palestinian civilians left behind. Between September 16 and 18 Maronite Phalangists commanded by Elie Hobeika raped, tortured, and murdered between 700 and 3,500 unarmed Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps under the eyes of Israeli forces who had occupied Beirut.
   None of those involved were ever brought to account for the massacre. On June 18, 2001, twenty-three survivors of Sabra and Shatila filed charges in a Belgian court against Ariel Sharon for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. Elie Hobeika was mysteriously assassinated in Beirut on January 24, 2002, two days after he met with Belgian senators and confirmed his willingness to testify against Sharon in the case.
   The failure of the United States to honor its promise to protect the Palestinians and its alliance with Israel provoked anti-American sentiments among some Lebanese and Palestinians, which were manifested in attacks on U.S. forces when they returned to Lebanon after the Sabra and Shatila massacre. US naval vessels off the coast of the Shuf briefly participated in the Lebanese civil war in support of the Phalange. Meanwhile Israel, which had been for several years an active ally of the Phalange, still occupied a large portion of Lebanon. In April 1983 a car bomb at the U.S. embassy in Beirut exploded killing 63 people, including 17 Americans. Another car bomb at the U.S. marine barracks in Beirut in October killed 241 marines, the largest number of casualties suffered by U.S. armed forces since the Vietnam War.
   The newly established Hizb Allah was responsible for these bombings. In addition to these and other attacks on U.S. French, and British citizens, from 1982 to 1992 organizations apparently linked to Hizb Allah abducted some 45 U.S., British, and French citizens and held them hostage for varying lengths of time. Iranian revolutionary guards arrived in Lebanon shortly after Israel's invasion and encouraged the formation of Hizb Allah. Thus, Israel's invasion of Lebanon and the initial U.S. toleration of it were among the factors indirectly responsible for the radicalization of the Lebanese shi'a community.
   There was a significant long-term cost to the American people – to say nothing of the cost to the Iranian and Lebanese people – for the ill considered CIA intervention in Iran in 1953 and for giving a green light to Israel's invasion of Lebanon and failing to uphold the commitment to protect Palestinian civilians in 1982. Hundreds of Americans lost their lives or experienced protracted suffering. Many fewer Americans were harmed than on September 11, and the relevant events took place in Teheran and Beirut rather than New York and Washington, DC. But the same principle applies. Deploying the enormous power of this country irresponsibly in the Middle East and around the world ultimately puts American lives and interests at risk.
   The reasons for the attacks on Americans in Iran and Lebanon in 1979 and throughout the 1980s were largely unknown to most Americans, allowing politicians and pundits with little understanding of the histories of those countries to disseminate highly simplified, if not ridiculous, explanations of their import. Articles and books explaining that shi'a Muslims had a propensity for violence and terrorism proliferated. Sensationalist writers described a global terror network based in the Soviet Union and the linkage between "communist totalitarianism and Islamic (and Arab) radicalism." Some scholars joined this band wagon. A new field of "terrorology" emerged, with its own journals, conferences, and research institutes. This popular and scholarly literature informed the discourse of the first American "war on terrorism" during the mid-1980s.
   MESA members, to our everlasting shame according to some pundits, did not participate much in the scholarly field of terrorology. In my view, there was great wisdom in this abstention. The terrorologists have not accomplished a great deal of practical or intellectual significance. Their studies have not noticeably decreased the incidence of acts of violence against civilians throughout the world. Nor have they enhanced our understanding of the causes of such acts. What they have done is to focus attention on tactics and symptoms, thereby impeding investigation into historical and social causes. This is an ostensibly pragmatic, but fundamentally misguided, approach to understanding terrorism. If the term is to be understood in any useful rather than propagandistic way, terrorism must be regarded as a social and historical phenomenon, not a moral or political epithet.
   In the traditional fashion of historians, what I've done here is to tell a story with a few asides and an implicit analysis. The story does not justify anti-American sentiment and attacks on American citizens, but offers an explanation for them. The distinction between understanding and justification is a basic component of any critical pedagogical method. However, since September 11 there have been far too many voices eager to efface this distinction and with it any possibility of comprehension.
   As a child I learned from the Mishnah "that whoever kills a single soul, the Bible considers to have killed a complete world. And whoever sustains and saves a single soul, it is as if that person sustained a whole world." Similar language appears in the Qur'an: "That is why We laid it down for the Israelites that whoever killed a human being, except as punishment for murder or other villainy in the land, shall be deemed as though he had killed all mankind; and that whoever saved a human life shall be deemed as though he had saved all mankind." I believe that civilians should not, under any circumstances, be killed or punished for the acts of their government or of others, even their family members. That moral principle tells us nothing about what we should do when it is violated or why it is so often violated, leaving ample room for investigation, analysis, and debate.
   The Responsibilities of Intellectuals

   What are the responsibilities and the possibilities for intellectuals with expertise in the Middle East after September 11? Middle East Studies is not a science; it is an interpretive endeavor proceeding from the never fully realizable aspiration to achieve empathic understanding of its subjects. The pain and shock of September 11 are indisputably profound and genuine. But they are not an adequate basis for understanding and responding to the events. So first and foremost we must be sources of reliable information and, on the basis of it, encourage reasoned public debate.
   In providing such information, I suggest that three elements should shape our presentation: 1) an awareness of historical contexts; 2) an international perspective that takes into account the global impact of events and the competing interests and understandings at play in any given circumstance; and 3) a commitment to explanation rather than pretentious claims to scientific certainty and prediction.
   I have already suggested one approach to the historical contextualization of anti-American sentiment in the Middle East. Much more could be said about this, and other approaches are easily imaginable. But the contention that Muslims or Middle Easterners hate the United States for what it is rather than because they perceive, rightly or wrongly, that it has done something to harm them, must be dismissed as arrant nonsense. It presumes that the peoples of the Middle East are inherently irrational, anti-democratic, or anti-modern. There surely are such tendencies among Middle Easterners and Muslims (as there are among Europeans and Americans, we should note). But the majority of the people of the Middle East are no less capable of understanding their basic economic and political interests than those of the United States.
   It is one of the great pleasures and privileges of scholarly life that our work often takes us around the world. Few Americans have the opportunity to have friends in London, Paris, Jerusalem, and Cairo. All talk of globalization is just so much corporate advertising unless we take seriously the values, opinions, and interests of the peoples with whom we are enmeshed in circuits of culture, commerce, and power.
   Much of what we normally do as scholars and as teachers is not directly relevant to September 11, however broadly cons d. Nonetheless, in my view the exceptional circumstances, which seem likely to persist for some time, demand of us that we stretch beyond our routine activities and speak to issues of current concern to the general public. Many of us may hesitate to do so because we are not specialists on Afghanistan or Saudi Arabia or political Islam, and so on. However, I am certain that every person in this room knows more than the average American television newscaster about these and a host of other topics that should be occupying the minds of the public in this country and beyond. I encourage all of you to share what you know and to speak about it in a language that is accessible to the general public.
   We cannot and should not speak with one voice as authorities whose academic expertise gives us exact knowledge of the best way to protect Americans from acts of terror, to remove Saddam Husayn from power, to end the Arab-Israeli conflict, or other such desirable goals. When we address such topics we express our opinions like any other citizens. Nonetheless, I believe we should speak publicly about such topics because our opinions are likely to be much better informed than most citizens.
   There has been an enormous demand for Middle East expertise in the United States following September 11. The clearest evidence of this is that in FY 2002 a parsimonious Congress augmented funding for Title VI and Fulbright-Hays international studies programs by $20.5 million – a record increase of 26%. Middle East and Central Asia studies, assailed as an intellectually unrespectable artifact of the Cold War era throughout the 1990s, are no longer on the defensive in the public arena. High school teachers have been retooling and drawing on the outreach programs of Title VI Middle East Centers and other university-based scholars to prepare themselves to teach more about the Middle East and Islam. Enrollments in courses with Middle Eastern and Islamic content, including basic language classes, have increased by as much as 100% at colleges and universities across the country. Many institutions have authorized new faculty appointments, a sharp reversal of the trend of the last decade.
   To be sure, some social scientists remain committed to a style of analysis in which the messy conditions of the Middle East and much of the rest of the actual world are marginalized as "externalities." A recent study documented that in the top seventeen political science departments in the United States, six have no tenured or tenure track faculty members with even a partial specialty in the Middle East and only five of the seventeen have a faculty member whose primary area of specialization is the Middle East. Five of these departments offer no courses whatsoever on the Middle East; and no department offers more than four courses.
   This study accepts the rankings of the departments as determined by USA Today and might be suspect on that basis. Nonetheless, I believe it is symptomatic. I also believe that this is going to change because of the perestroika movement in the discipline of political science in which several MESA members have been involved and because political science will forfeit its claims to analyze the real world if it ignores a part of it which has imposed itself so forcefully on the consciousness of the readers of USA Today.
   The budgets of many universities remain severely constrained due to fiscal follies of legislatures or short-sited voters and the current economic downturn. Yet there is broad public agreement that ignorance of the Middle East and of Islam is a luxury our society can no longer afford. This recalls a bumper sticker distributed in California after some people began to understand the devastating impact of Proposition 13 on public education: "If you think education is expensive, try ignorance."
   On the Purported Demise of Area Studies

   To paraphrase Mark Twain, reports of the death of Middle East area studies have been greatly exaggerated. During the 1990s many manifestos proclaimed that as a product of the Cold War, area studies was shaped by the political discourse of a bygone era and mired in overly descriptive and untheoretical particularism. Hence, we were advised to cast our lot with our individual disciplines, which have a more universalist outlook. The critique of the insularity of Middle East studies was appropriate, though I am not convinced that Middle East studies was or is any more insular than Chinese or Russian studies, or American studies for that matter.
   Much of the critique of area studies assumed an opposition between universalist disciplines and particularist area studies. The histories of the disciplines suggest that this is a false dichotomy. The modern, professional, discipline of history emerged in the late 19th century primarily in the form of national histories of Europe. Its foundational categories – nations and national states – are ill-suited for the study of the premodern and even the modern Middle East as well as much of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Nonetheless, these categories and the specific historical trajectories of Western Europe and North America were presumed to be universal. A vast body of social theory – modernization theory – was developed to explain how and why everyone – peasants, handicraft workers, nomads, etc. – who was not "modern" became or would soon become so.
   Most social theory is based on data drawn from a narrow range of human experience. As Kenneth Prewitt has argued, "The project of American social science has been America." Thus, the bulk of American political science is concerned with voting, public opinion, democratic pluralism, and other phenomena of marginal relevance to understanding how power operates in much of the world, and arguably in this country as well. Many political scientists who studied the Middle East understood this and focused their attention on the political elites. The Iranian revolution represented a crisis for elite studies because those committed to that approach were surprised by the events and had no tools to explain the popular movement that brought about the change in regime.
   The critique of area studies was also based on a misperception of its history. Middle East area studies began to emerge, not during the Cold War, but during the interwar period. James Breasted articulated his vision for the comprehensive study of ancient Near Eastern civilizations with the establishment of the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute as early as 1919. Princeton University established its Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures and brought Philip Hitti from the American University of Beirut to teach there in 1927. Under Hitti's leadership, Princeton became the first center for Arabic and Islamic studies in North America. He organized an interdepartmental Committee on Near Eastern Studies that offered summer programs in 1935, 1938, and 1941 with courses in languages, history, and culture of the Islamic Middle East to those "who have become convinced of the necessity of acquiring some competence in the Arabic-Islamic phases of their respective disciplines." In 1947 this project became the first interdepartmental Program in Near Eastern Studies in the United States.
   That is to say that Middle East studies was emerging with an autonomous intellectual agenda before the Cold War and the concerted intervention of the U.S. government. That agenda was shaped by missionary and petroleum projects distinct from, although allied with, the interests of the state and whose success required empathic understanding of Middle Eastern peoples. For this reason those with Middle East expertise were regarded with suspicion in some circles, including parts of the academy. The National Defense Education Act of 1958 provided financial support and public sanction for the growth of Middle East area studies and simultaneously attempted to mobilize academic knowledge for the purposes of the state.
   From these revised understandings of the relationship of area studies to disciplines and the history of Middle East studies we can learn several things. First, while situating our research and teaching in relationship to existing bodies of knowledge and intellectual conversations remains imperative as ever, we need not feel overly inferior about the marginality of the Middle East in the structure of disciplinary knowledge. As September 11 made painfully clear, it is those who did not think that the Middle East or Islam were worthy of study who were insular, if not myopic.
   Islamic social movements are a major phenomenon of global modernity, and it is impossible to understand the contemporary world without giving them a prominent place. Islamic social movements were also a prominent feature of an earlier phase of globalization – the era of the new imperialism from the 1870s to 1914. It too, cannot be adequately understood without accounting for them. And, as Janet Abu-Lughod has argued, Islam was the cultural cement of the 14th Century Eurasian commercial system. A very strong case can be made that for most of the last 2,000 years, China and the Islamic world – not North America and Western Europe – have been the dominant centers of global economic and cultural power.
   Hence, in several different historical eras Middle East studies can play an important role in implementing Dipesh Chakrabarty's call to provincialize Europe and along with it the categories of knowledge that emerged with the global dominance of Europe and North America. This is a worthy project not because Euro-American culture deserves to be regarded with more suspicion and hostility than any other culture, but because powerful as the United States now is in relation to the rest of the world, that power is situated in contingent historical conditions, whether we like it or not. Historically informed and self-critical awareness of the categories of our knowledge and the sources of our power is a good antidote to imperial hubris.
   The early history of Middle East studies also teaches us that our project has always involved the collaboration of scholars of Middle Eastern origins with those based in North America and Europe. Middle East studies as we know it is inconceivable without institutions like the American University of Beirut, the American University in Cairo, and Robert College; publications like L'Egypte Contemporaine and Revue du Monde Musulman; and individuals like Philip Hitti, Albert Hourani, and Charles Issawi. American Middle East studies is a cosmopolitan product. This has always been a source of anxiety, and in some cases outright panic, for those dedicated to policing the boundaries of knowledge and public discourse and enforcing a narrow view of American interests. We should embrace it as a reason for pride.
   Middle East Studies and the State

   Middle East studies has had a shifting relationship with the U.S. government and its adventures in the region. During the 1950s and 1960s modernization theory was the regnant social science orthodoxy. It was fully compatible with the project of expanding the post-World War II informal U.S. imperium. In those decades many scholarly studies praised U.S. allies in the Middle East – Turkey, Lebanon, Tunisia, and Iran – as successful examples of modernization.
   The 1967 Arab-Israeli war, the second Lebanese civil war, and the Iranian revolution undermined the appeal of modernization theory and stimulated critical intellectual projects that were directly or indirectly inspired by the global upsurge of 1968. Among the most enduring of them is the Middle East Research and Information Project, with which I have been proudly associated for nearly 25 years.
   Some have suggested that scholars of the Middle East have been especially prone to adopt approaches critical of U.S. government policy in the region which is their object of study. But even a cursory look at the literature of Latin American studies or scholarship on any other area of the world, including the United States, reveals that this was a broad intellectual tendency that was especially strong in history, sociology, and literary studies.
   After the collapse of the Soviet bloc, much of American international studies became enthused by the concept of civil society because it seemed to have played a prominent role in the liberation of Eastern Europe. In the Middle Eastern context this often involved investigating the extent to which Islam is compatible with democracy. This research agenda was not a conspiracy of anti-American radicals who wished to obfuscate the character of Islam; it was encouraged by circles in and close to the U.S. government.
   Several other conceptual approaches and research agendas have mobilized varying degrees of enthusiasm among scholars of the Middle East over the years. This is not the place to evaluate them. I simply wish to point out that some of them have been compatible with the outlook of successive U.S. governments and American interests as they define them, while others are rooted in competing views of what American interests should be. Moreover, while there certainly have been intellectual fashions and dominant tendencies, there have always been oppositional views of various kinds.
   Does anyone doubt that this is the normal state of affairs in a democratic society? Humanistic scholarly life proceeds through a process of argumentation. While there is no final and absolute truth, disputation and debate, intemperate and infused with egoism as it may sometimes be, is the only vehicle we have to challenge received wisdom and open new intellectual horizons.
   The holders of state power have always tried to impose an intellectual agenda compatible with their interests, as students of Middle East history know from the attempts of the 'Abbasid Caliphs al-Ma'mun (813-33) and al-Mu'tasim (833-42) to impose the rationalist mu'tazili doctrine on their subjects. And there have always been those who have struggled against the imposition of doctrines associated with state power, as we know from the ardent resistance of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-855) to the mu'tazili doctrine. As some would have it, the victory of ibn Hanbal in this confrontation is part of "what went wrong" in Islamic societies. We could just as easily draw a different lesson: that when states attempt to impose an intellectual orthodoxy – even an "enlightened" one such as rationalism, secularism, modernization, Arab socialism, Marxism-Leninism, or neo-liberal economics and "freedom" – they inevitably generate a resistance, which may or may not itself be enlightened. And in combating that resistance they may very likely adopt cruel and authoritarian measures that will undermine the legitimacy of whatever "enlightened" ideas they espoused. The recent histories of Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Iran, and Turkey offer volumes of evidence for this proposition.
   Governments ought to keep a certain distance from the academy. There will usually be plenty of scholars who will, of their own free will, choose to serve the interests of established power if given even modest incentives. If not, then perhaps they do not deserve to be served.
   Let me conclude by saying something about the scurrilous attacks that have been leveled against MESA collectively and several of our members individually during the course of the last year. The gist of these attacks is that MESA has been taken over by a crowd of post-colonial studies/post-modernist radicals inspired by Edward Said and that this takeover has been facilitated because half of our membership is composed of people of Middle Eastern origins. MESA is, therefore an unpatriotic and not truly an American organization. Consequently, MESA and its members have been uninterested in warning the United States about the dangers of radical Islam. Against the prevailing opinions in Washington, our members persist in opposing U.S. policy on the Arab-Israeli conflict, on launching a pre-emptive war against Iraq, and other such issues.
   Anyone familiar with MESA and its members will know that these claims are an amalgam of outright mendacity and tendentious readings of a highly selective body of the scholarship and popular writings of some MESA members. Neither the board nor the Program Committee, which is primarily responsible for the content of the annual meetings, has any interest in imposing an intellectual or political orthodoxy on the MESA membership. This would, in any case, be impossible; and that is a good thing. The board, and especially its Committee on Academic Freedom on the Middle East and North Africa, has consistently defended human rights and academic freedom. The board has also taken the position that it is in the national interest as well as the interest of advancing scholarship that there be an administrative separation between academic life and the United States government. Reasonable people might disagree about that, but I do not believe that holding one view or another on this matter is evidence of lack of patriotism.
   In contrast to the fanciful notions of those who have attacked MESA, the actual history of the association since it was founded demonstrates that the range of intellectual opinion and topics open to discussion has broadened considerably over time. For example, the first annual meeting was held six months after the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. The board prevented formal discussion of that event at the meeting and even asked a graduate student to withdraw a proposed paper on the Arab-Israeli conflict "due to the sensitivity of the subject."
   This was an expression of the gentlemen's agreement – and the founders of MESA were overwhelmingly gentlemen – that facilitated the establishment of MESA: discussion of the Arab-Israeli conflict would be avoided because it would generate too much controversy and undermine the collegiality of the organization. Most importantly, as Timothy Mitchell has argued, airing of controversy on topics like the Arab-Israeli conflict would undermine the claim of Middle East studies to objective and scientific knowledge. Consequently, for years there was no discussion of the Arab-Israeli conflict at MESA.
   We have come a long way since then. No one would dare to propose that the Arab-Israeli conflict, or the mass murder of Armenians in the late Ottoman period, or the CIA's involvement in attempts at regime change Iran, Syria, Lebanon, and elsewhere, to name only a few controversial topics, be excluded from discussion at MESA meetings.
   We have three basic options before us in dealing with such controversial issues: 1) to ignore them; 2) to try to impose conformity; or 3) to encourage free and open discussion. I am sure that the consensus of MESA members is that the third option is the only one a scholarly organization can consider.
   The free and open discussion that has occurred within and beyond MESA has led to significantly expanding the range of what is considered a legitimate topic of inquiry and liberating some space for articulating previously repressed opinions. For example, when I was an undergraduate at Princeton, I was not permitted to write my senior honors thesis on the post-1948 Palestinian national movement on the grounds that the topic was less than fifty years old. Professors in Princeton's Department of Near Eastern Studies who were critical of Israel rarely expressed their views to students. There was no class on the Arab-Israeli conflict. This was not a subject for public discussion. The topic was covered in a single lecture in the survey course on modern Middle East history. Most of us were not fully aware of the differences of opinion among our teachers, even as we saw some of them maneuvering to reshape the political and intellectual tone of the department.
   As a doctoral student at the University of Michigan I was told by my advisor, the late Richard P. Mitchell, that he would support me if I wrote a Ph.D. thesis on the formation of the Arab working class in Palestine, but that if I wrote a dissertation about Israel or Palestine I would likely have difficulty getting an academic job. That was the origin of my engagement with Egypt. While this has been an entirely positive experience, it was originally motivated by fear that those who held the then dominant views in the field of Middle East studies would use their power to restrict debate and impede the advancement of those with unorthodox views. I did not need much convincing that Dick Mitchell's advice was wise, as I had already witnessed the misuse of academic power on matters relating to the Arab-Israeli conflict while pursuing an M.A. at Harvard.
   The intellectual boundaries of Middle East studies have been substantially redrawn since the time of my undergraduate and graduate training. This is what the self-proclaimed enforcers of academic propriety object to. Opinions which previously could barely be articulated at all now circulate relatively freely on campuses.
   That freedom is now under attack and we must vigorously defend it. For example, Harvard President Lawrence Summers has clumsily attempted to police the limits of acceptable opinion on Middle Eastern topics by suggesting that calling for divestment from corporations doing business with Israel is "anti-Semitic in…effect if not…intent." One need not support the substance of the demand for divestment in order to discern the difference between even the most vehement criticism of Israel and its policies and anti-Semitism. We must resist such attempts to delegitimize dissenting opinion. They are grave threats to academic freedom and intelligent public discourse.
   The administration and faculty of the University of North Carolina acted much more wisely and bravely in refusing to capitulate to attacks from the Christian right Family Policy Network and others for choosing as the summer reading assignment for incoming freshmen Michael Sells' translation and interpretation of the early verses of the Qur'an, Approaching the Qur'an: The Early Revelations.
   Those who have attacked MESA are, in the main, neo-conservative believers with links to the Israeli right. They tend to think that phrases like "war on terrorism," "clash of civilizations," and "axis of evil" are serious explanations for what is happening in the contemporary Middle East. They are welcome to their opinions; and they certainly have no dearth of outlets for expressing them.
   Many of us may feel that because the attacks on MESA are intellectually vacuous, there is no need for us to respond. In my opinion, it would be a mistake for us to dismiss such slogans - simplistic and ahistorical as they may be – as arrant nonsense. If we believe so, we must marshal the appropriate arguments to demonstrate the case. We should expose students to this material and teach them to understand the debate. And we should make our case to the broader public in whatever venues are available to us. Moreover, we cannot ignore that these notions are being propagated by circles close to the government of the most powerful country in human history in concert with unprecedented assertions of a right to make and unmake regimes throughout the world, especially in the Middle East. It is a dangerous moment when a state accustomed to thinking its dominion is absolute confronts the limits of its power, as was the case on September 11, 2001.
   [RECAPITULATION: Our government is holding hundreds of individuals without charges and without allowing them access to a lawyer.  …
   Self-appointed guardians of patriotic rectitude have attempted to prescribe the proper way to study Islam and the Middle East, if not to proscribe it altogether. Neo-conservative propagandists have launched a McCarthyite-style smear campaign against MESA and some our most prominent members.  …
   Israel's invasion of Lebanon in the summer of 1982…. pave the way for Israel's annexation of the West Bank. … After receiving a "green light" from the Reagan administration, Israel fabricated a pretext for launching its invasion. …
   The failure of the United States to honor its promise to protect the Palestinians and its alliance with Israel provoked anti-American sentiments among some Lebanese and Palestinians, which were manifested in attacks on U.S. forces when they returned to Lebanon after the Sabra and Shatila massacre. US naval vessels off the coast of the Shuf briefly participated in the Lebanese civil war in support of the Phalange. Meanwhile Israel, which had been for several years an active ally of the Phalange, still occupied a large portion of Lebanon. In April 1983 a car bomb at the U.S. embassy in Beirut exploded killing 63 people, including 17 Americans. Another car bomb at the U.S. marine barracks in Beirut in October killed 241 marines, the largest number of casualties suffered by U.S. armed forces since the Vietnam War.
   The newly established Hizb Allah was responsible for these bombings. In addition to these and other attacks on U.S. French, and British citizens, from 1982 to 1992 organizations apparently linked to Hizb Allah abducted some 45 U.S., British, and French citizens and held them hostage for varying lengths of time. Iranian revolutionary guards arrived in Lebanon shortly after Israel's invasion and encouraged the formation of Hizb Allah. Thus, Israel's invasion of Lebanon and the initial U.S. toleration of it were among the factors indirectly responsible for the radicalization of the Lebanese shi'a community.
   There was a significant long-term cost to the American people – to say nothing of the cost to the Iranian and Lebanese people – for the ill considered CIA intervention in Iran in 1953 and for giving a green light to Israel's invasion of Lebanon and failing to uphold the commitment to protect Palestinian civilians in 1982. Hundreds of Americans lost their lives or experienced protracted suffering. RECAP. ENDS.]
   [COMMENT: The retiring Professor didn't discuss the U.S. Big End of Town's desire to get the OIL in the Near East and the Middle East, and to keep the French, British and others from getting more of it.  COMMENT ENDS.]
   [RESPONSE: Martin Kramer's adverse comments on the Professor's opinions, dated Dec 30, 2002, are at www.geocities. com/martin kramerorg/ 2002_12_30. htm ENDS.] [Nov 24, 02]

• Catholic Church sends message of peace to Muslims; The Catholic Church has marked the end of the Islamic holy month of Ramadan by reaffirming the shared principles of peace, justice and human dignity for all. ACBC president Archbishop Francis Carroll said that in the wake of September 11, the Bali bombings and hostilities in the Middle East, it was important to remember the shared traditions of Christianity and Islam. The Record, "Catholic Church sends message of peace to Muslims," p 4, Nov 28 2002
• But are we innocent? "Thou shalt love the Lord … and thy neighbour as thyself." … [X.Y.] (The Record Nov 21) reminded us of some of the excesses of the fanatics of the Moslem religion … But it seems he forgot to mention that religious and racial intolerance have involved horrible excesses from all sides over the past 2000 years. … Have we in the developed world gained our prosperity by injustices in the undeveloped Third World? The Moslem community is a significant portion of the latter. [Rot! Valuable oil is plentiful in many Moslem lands.] – The Record, letter, Brian O'Leary, Dunsborough, p 7, Nov 28 2002
[Leaders command and practise jihad against infidels, and death for those who change from Islam.]
   Anglican Messenger, Perth W. Australia, "From Bali to Bethlehem," by Anthony H. Nichols, Anglican Bishop of North West Australia, page 13, Dec 2002
   Leaders command and practise jihad against infidels, and death for apostates. There is systematic violence against Christians nowadays. Almost at the same time as the Bali nightclub bombing [Oct 12 2002] there was a bombing at Manado, a mainly Christian city in North Sulawesi. There has been a pattern of Islamic terror against Christian communities in Eastern Indonesia for the past three years.
   A few decades ago insurgency and terrorism were practised by atheistic Marxists or Maoists (still is in Peru and Nepal), nowadays the motivation is mainly religious, Islamic. Christian victims are in Sudan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines and Indonesia. Christians are far from guiltless, remember the Crusades. Today in Muslim countries, Muslims who convert to Christianity are executed. The Quran and Islamic history show that Mohammed rode into Mecca to subjugate with the sword. Jesus rode into Jerusalem to humbly die for the world's sins. [Dec 2002]
• 2002 - Red Cross bans Christmas.  Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom of, flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  


   UK Mail (Britain), By Steve Doughty, Social Affairs Correspondent, Page One, Tuesday, December 24, 2002
   BRITAIN: CHRISTMAS has been banned by the Red Cross from its 430 fund-raising shops.
   Staff have been ordered to take down decorations and to remove any other signs of the Christian festival because they could offend Moslems.
   The charity's politically-correct move has triggered an avalanche of criticism and mockery - from Christians and Moslems.
   Christine Banks, a volunteer at a Red Cross shop in New Romney, Kent, said: 'We put up a nativity scene in the window and were told to take it out.
   It seems we can't have anything that means Christmas. We're allowed to have some tinsel but that's it.
   'When we send cards they have to say season's greetings or best wishes. They must not be linked directly to Christmas.
   'When we asked we were told it is because we must not upset Moslems.'
   Mrs Banks added: 'We have been instructed that we can't say anything about Christmas and we certainly can't have a Christmas tree.
  It could offend Moslems, says ‘neutral’ charity  
   'I think the policy is offensive to Moslems as well as to us. No reasonable person can object to Christians celebrating Christmas. But we are not supposed to show any sign of Christianity at all.'
   Labour peer Lord Ahmed, one of the country's most prominent Moslem politicians, said: 'It is stupid to think Moslems would be offended.
   'The Moslem community has been talking to Christians for the past 1,400 years. The teachings from Islam are that you should respect other faiths.'
   He added: 'In my business all my staff celebrate Christmas and I celebrate with them. It is absolutely not the case that Christmas could damage the Red Cross reputation for neutrality - I think their people have gone a little bit over the top.'
   The furore is a fresh blow to the image of what was once one of Britain's most respected charities.
   The British Red Cross lost friends this year over its support for the French illegal immigrant camp at Sangatte and its insistence on concentrating large efforts on helping asylum seekers.
   Officials at the charity's London HQ confirmed that Christmas is barred from the 430 shops which contributed more than £20million to its income last year.
   'The Red Cross is a neutral organisation and we don't want to be aligned with any political party or particular philosophy,' a spokesman said. [Continued on Page 2]
   [RECAPITULATION: Labour peer Lord Ahmed, one of the country's most prominent Moslem politicians, said: … 'The Moslem community has been talking to Christians for the past 1,400 years. The teachings from Islam are that you should respect other faiths.'   RECAP. ENDS.]
   [COMMENT: But, what do the Koran, the Hadith, and the Sharia Law command the faithful?  And what is happening in Iraq and Syria etc. to Christians?   COMMENT ENDS.] [Dec 24, 02]

• 2003 - Islam not a peaceful religion, says writer, quoting the Koran "No Muslim should be killed for killing a kafir [non-Muslim]." The founder Mohammad burned out the eyes of enemies (Hadith; vol. 1:234). People can't freely leave Islam, he says, because of the ruling, "Whomever changes his Islamic religion, kill him" (Hadith vol 9:57). More than 90 per cent of terrorist organisations today are Islamic. Northern Ireland and other wrongdoing of people from other religions are of people violating their spiritual teaching, not fulfiling it. – Wanneroo Times (Perth W.A. northern area), "Islam not a peaceful religion," letter to editor, p 21, Tue Jan 21 2003
• 2003 - Burn or destroy the bastions of Infidels. The Australian Reader's Digest February 2003 valuable exposé: Saudi Arabia's deadly export of Wahhabist extremism: "While condemning terrorism, the Saudi royal family spends millions that fall into the hands of Islamic extremists who foster conflicts throughout the world. In late 2001, NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Organisation] peacekeepers intercepted a phone call from a Muslim charity worker in Sarajevo [in former Yugoslavia] to an Al Quaeda terrorist commander based in Afghanistan. In response, they raided an organisation linked closely to the Saudi High Commission for Aid to Bosnia and Herzegovina. The raid netted computer files on crop duster aircraft, instructions on how to fake US State Department ID badges and credit cards, along with before and after photographs of New York's World Trade Centre, and maps of US government buildings and military installations. A second raid in Zenica yielded a cache of blank Western passports." (pp 119-120)
  The Saudi royal family has funded 1350 overseas mosques, 210 Islamic centres, and hundreds of universities in Europe, the Americas, Asia and Africa. Unfortunately, this huge proselytising effort has propagated a version of Islam – called "Wahhabism" – whose message is that of jihad [holy war] against all "infidels".
  A textbook funded free under this programme, set for year 9, declares, "The last hour will not come before the Muslims fight the Jews." Another announces, "It is allowed to burn or destroy the bastions of kufar (infidels)." (p 121 a)
  A graduate of the Imam Ibn Saud University in Arabia is Sheikh Abdullah el-Faisal, a Jamaican-born British convert to Islam. Among audiotapes he has made are "No Peace With the Jews" and "Jihad." (p 124 a & b)
  Wahhabi leaders, such as Abdullah Bin Matruk Al-Haddal, a preacher from the Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs, have reportedly condoned the actions of Osama Bin Laden. In November 1995 a U.S. military installation in Riyadh was bombed. Suspects were beheaded before Westerners could question them.
  The article quotes warnings by the Pakistani author of the book Taliban, and moderate Muslim leaders in France and Italy.
  – Summarised from Australian Reader's Digest, "Saudi Arabia's deadly export," by Brian Eads, pp 119-125, February 2003. [Emphasis added.]
   [COMMENT: It is interesting to see the last paragraph of the RD article, which mentions that the U.S. President George W. Bush's administration has the avowed intention of fostering democracy in the Middle East. The article does not give the obvious next statement –Saudi Arabia in the Near East is an absolute monarchy being run as a puritanical dictatorship, and the grossly uneven distribution of its stupendous oil income is not in accord with either Islamic principles or the publicly-stated objectives of the U.S. ruling elites. END of COMMENT] [February 2003]

• 2003 - US focus on al-Qaeda ignores the many hues of Islamic militants; US Secretary of State Colin Powell's rhetoric last week was rooted in a fundamental misconception of the nature of modern Islamic terrorism. Powell linked Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, an experienced and committed Jordanian militant, with both Osama bin Laden and Baghdad… .
   That was why my drive across Afghanistan in the autumn of 2001 had been so cosmopolitan. Groups from dozens of countries - with Pakistanis, Egyptians and Uzbeks most prominent - concluded pragmatic and mutually beneficial alliances with the hardline Islamic militia… .
   Islamic militancy is a movement that is rooted in broad trends in the Middle East, in the economic, social and political failure of governments, both locally and in the West, to fulfil the aspirations of hundreds of millions of people. Islamic militancy is a multivalent, diverse and complex phenomenon. Focusing on individuals, even bin Laden, is a ludicrous oversimplification.
   – The Observer, (London), "Powell doesn't know who he is up against," world view/story/ 0,11581, 891962,00.html , by Jason Burke, Sun Feb 9, 2003
"Class action against Bali bombers". AUSTRALIA: Charities, banks and even three members of the Saudi royal family may be sued in a class action in the United States of America. They are alleged to be financing terrorism such as the September 11 2001 catastrophes in the U.S. and the October 12 2002 bombings in Bali, Indonesia. Australian victims of Bali are joining in. – Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), au/7.30/content/ 2003/s781 166.htm , "Class action against Bali bombers," Reporter: Tim Lester, February 11 2003
• 2003 - Osama Bin Laden wants Iraqis to fight West, but says Iraq is governed by infidels, socialists. Al Jazeera Satellite Channel received an audio tape on Feb 11 2003, issued Press Release Feb 12 03
• 2003 - War against Iraq began on 20 March 2003, after Saddam Hussein had failed to go into exile on 48 hours notice, and was judged to have failed to have destroyed all weapons of mass destruction (WMD), which he had promised to do as a condition of a cease-fire in 1991. The countries that attacked are the United States, Britain, and Australia. There are about 30 countries giving various forms of assistance, and there are said to be about 15 others that approve the war, but are anonymous! [Mar 20, 03]
• 2003 - Reading: Surrender to Leadership. A list of books and periodicals on this extremist problem, begun on Mar 28, 2003
• 2003 - "The Hidden Face of Terrorism," book by Paul David Collins, of Ohio, reviewed in Nexus magazine, Australia, April-May 2003, pp 11-16 and 79-80.
   "Terrorism does not emerge by accident but is usually sponsored by the state to serve the demands of a powerful elite, as can be seen in the creation of Osama bin Laden's al-Qa'ida." "The story of the dreaded al-Qa'ida terrorist network begins with Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Carter's National Security Advisor." "This social engineering project successfully transformed Muslim children into conscienceless killing machines."
   "… the United States spent millions of dollars to supply Afghan schoolchildren with textbooks filled with violent images and militant Islamic teachings …" [Purchase details at Reading] – Nexus magazine, April-May 2003
• 2003 - United States troops take Baghdad. (See for example The Weekend Australian, Apr 12-13, 2003) [Actual Apr 8, 03]
• 2003 - "Roadmap." A Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. UNITED STATES: The following is a performance-based and goal-driven roadmap, with clear phases, timelines, target dates, and benchmarks aiming at progress through reciprocal steps by the two parties in the political, security, economic, humanitarian, and institution-building fields, under the auspices of the Quartet [the United States, European Union, United Nations, and Russia].
   The destination is a final and comprehensive settlement of the Israel-Palestinian conflict by 2005, as presented in President Bush's speech of 24 June, and welcomed by the EU, Russia and the UN in the 16 July and 17 September Quartet Ministerial statements.
   A two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict will only be achieved through an end to violence and terrorism, when the Palestinian people have a leadership acting decisively against terror and willing and able to build a practicing democracy based on tolerance and liberty, and through Israel's readiness to do what is necessary for a democratic Palestinian state to be established, and a clear, unambiguous acceptance by both parties of the goal of a negotiated settlement as described below. The Quartet will assist and facilitate implementation of the plan, starting in Phase I, including direct discussions between the parties as required.
   – A Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, www.state. gov/r/pa/ prs/ps/2003/ 20062.htm , Press Statement, Office of the Spokesman, Washington, DC, USA, Apr 30, 2003
[COMMENT: On and on it goes; note the "management administration degree" terminology in the title, and the words "timelines, target dates and benchmarks." It's all so simple, especially if you are being supported by the taxpayers and Big Business, live in a big city, or are one of the "neocons"! On the other hand, ask yourself what you would want if your country had been invaded by more members of one of the several religious-cultural groups that had lived there for centuries, and you had been driven out of your city, town, or farm. If you were a diehard, you would want the right of return. If more pragmatic, you would want generous compensation. TRY [Ctrl] + "F" FOR THE WORDS "Return" and "Compensation." I couldn't find either word.
   The document does admit that an occupation began in 1967, not adverting to the fact that the first invasion and occupation had begun on May 14 1948, not to mention the 1930s terrorist activity. To go back further, there is a lot of bloodletting and destruction in the Hebrew Scriptures account of the conquest of Canaan (Palestine) in ancient times.
   Neither could I find "Reform," which I sought with the idea that the world might want the Israeli secret police and security service reformed and made less likely to kidnap somebody on the other side of the planet! Their judicial system, too, leaves much to be desired. But no, according to this Road Map, it is the PALESTINIANS who have to reform themselves!  The victim nation must bow!
   In fact, the Quartet wants the Palestinians to become a practising democracy! Since the 1940s the preachers, politicians and terror leaders have been teaching the Palestinians to be rebels, to die for Allah, to resist the invader. Is it likely that the Palestinians will be any quicker to become democratic, than the Europeans were after spending centuries resisting invaders during the Dark Ages?
   Although we know the corrupt nature of the United Nations (UN), we also know that it has for more than 50 years passed resolutions about Palestine and Israel, and ordered Israel to withdraw to borders which varied as it became enlarged, but no "coalition of the willing" ever embarked on enforcing those resolutions.
   The UN, which is one of the "quartet," is grudgingly mentioned as initials in a longer acronym, "UNSCR 242, 338, and 1397," with the pious hope that these resolutions will be kept in mind during negotiations over borders in the future. For the present, there will be "provisional borders." Try for the relevant keywords!
   And look how gently the Israeli occupation of territory in Syria and Lebanon has been dealt with!
   The illegal Israeli settlements in the occupied territories since 1967 are not to be dismantled, only the ones built since a date in 2000. Obviously, this is not an even-handed document.[Document date: Apr 30 03]COMMENT ENDS]

• 2003 - Chaos to reign in Iraq. PERTH: Rev Neville Watson has returned from three months in Baghdad (Iraq's capital). He was with a group of peace activists, Voice in the Wilderness. This article gives his impressions. The bombing was shocking, with mutilated corpses, and distraught mothers identifying children in the morgue. The promise of shock and awe was fulfiled.
   Children in the USA are being indoctrinated from an early age that violence is the ultimate solution, by cartoons, comics, film, and television. The USA possesses the greatest number of weapons of mass destruction. He had conversations with American troops; all but one said they had joined to get an education.
   He acted as "pharmacist" with the medications that volunteers had brought. The group was contributing material to two websites, one of which was averaging 250,000 hits a day. The statue incident was an example of the media providing what the [Western] public wanted; the 40 people in the square all came from one suburb of Baghdad, rent-a-crowd. The US troops could have prevented the wholesale looting; one tank at the entrance would have stopped the museum being looted. They only guarded the oil ministry.
   "The US leadership hasn't a clue. They don't know the Iraqi culture.  … The Six-day War in 1967 between Israel and Palestine is still going on." There will be revenge killings with civil war for many years as corruption works its way out. The Iraqi war will still be being fought in 2015, Mr Watson said.
   – Western Impact, Uniting Church periodical, Perth, "Chaos to reign in Iraq; Minister says U.S. hasn't a clue," May 2003, pp 1-2
   [COMMENT: Yes, the US don't know the Iraqi culture.  In fact, they don't know (or did they?) the basics of Muslim religious rules, and actually served some Iraqi community leaders ham sandwiches in the early days of the occupation.  The Iraqis all politely declined. COMMENT ENDS.] [May 2003]

• 2003 - The Fate of Jews in German Hands: From Holocaust Historian to Holocaust? NEW ZEALAND: The New Zealand Herald has been keeping its readers informed of a Canterbury University attack on the writings of Joel Hayward. The attacks have been likened to book burning.
   An article by Canterbury University historian Dr Thomas Fudge (who lectures on mediaeval religious dissent and witch-hunting) examined the treatment of Dr Joel Hayward over his 1993 master's thesis, which questioned certain elements of the Holocaust history.
   In the period since he wrote it Hayward, who had questioned the use of gas chambers and that far fewer than 6 million Jews died, has withdrawn some of his conclusions. In 1996 Massey University appointed him as a senior lecturer in defence and strategic studies. He tried to get his master's thesis withdrawn from Canterbury library, but it refused, but he was allowed to write an addendum.
   Early in 2000 Waikato University Professor Dov Bing reviewed the thesis for the NZ Jewish Chronicle and Hayward faced a strong public backlash.
   June 2002: Hayward resigned from Massey to recover from a nervous breakdown caused, it is said, by the stress from the publicity and death threats to him and his family. He hasn't had a job since.
   May 2003: Dr Fudge's article, detailing Hayward's experiences, is published in History Now. Its editor Professor Ian Campbell was called before the editorial committee and his departmental head Peter Hempenstall. An embargo was slapped on the journal and 500 copies were recalled. Prof. Campbell disclosed: "I couldn't continue as editor."
   Dr Fudge resigned in disgust, with effect from the end of the year, saying he could not remain at a university that suppressed academic freedom.
   The New Zealand Herald quoted the national president of the Association of University Staff, Bill Rosenberg, as saying "he had taken calls from academics around the country worried about the censorship." See "The Fate of Jews in German Hands: From Holocaust Historian to Holocaust?" May 2003
   [COMMENT: Some of these "Holocaust revisionist historians" really make me wonder. They quote as a "fact" that nobody has turned up written Hitler orders for mass killing of Jews. The absence of a document proves very little.
   They also dispute the number of Jews killed, and sneer at Jewish activists who remind the world of the horrors. The "revisionists" act like Hitlerites, because they won't face the fact that even if only 6 or 6000 or 600,000 Jewish civilians were killed by the dictatorship, without an offence against ordinary laws, proved in a civilised trial, THAT IS MURDER. That is TYRANNY.
   They ought to write a thesis on how Hitler's plebiscites supposedly gave him nearly 100% approval, although tens of thousands of people had belonged to lively opposition and special interest groups before he suppressed every political party but his own, and suppressed trade unions, certain Protestant leaders, Catholic Action, Judaist business and professional groups, and many other groups. Give us the name of the "Leader of the Opposition" in Nazi Germany, you "revisionist historians."
   Explain how the "Fuehrer Principle" was accepted by seemingly sensible Germans. Why do you waste your talents on writing trash?
   The three 20th century monsters were Stalin, Hitler, and Tojo. None of them allowed "revisionists" to live. A lesser evil, but like them a warmonger, was Mussolini. Why not publicise their evil?
   And the recall of 500 copies ("book burning") and death threats in New Zealand? Yes, this is evidence that there are powerful groups, that are a threat to genuine democrats. And they don't all belong to the group under discussion! Just look at the murder of a U.S. abortion doctor, the sectarian terrorism in Northern Ireland, and the shameless bombings of the mercy-dealing Red Cross and the United Nations in Iraq in 2003, to see where enthusiasm for a belief can lead people.
   But there is a problem with the stance of portraying this episode as an attack on "academic freedom." Some of these "revisionist" historians try to pick holes in the "accepted facts" of the Holocaust, without seeing it all in a whole environment of conquest and mass hysteria and hate. For example, they don't discuss the fact that the Nazis, even before they began mass-murdering the main Jewish populations, had illegally occupied the Saar, Austria, and Czechoslovakia, with great loss of civilian life of various groups in these countries and Germany, including Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, Esperantists, gypsies, Jews, union leaders, clear-thinking religious pastors (many leaders had succumbed), Communists, Socialists, "decadent" artists, homosexuals, etc., etc.
   Let academe write a thesis about the period from the rise of Bolshevism in Russia, other Communist/Socialist bloodbaths such as in Hungary and Mexico, and the rise of Japanese extremist Emperor-worship and conquest and murder in neighbouring countries, Fascism, and Nazism and its copies in Hungary and elsewhere. The first and last sentences of such writing could be: "Man's inhumanity to man, makes countless thousands mourn." (Robert Burns, 1759-96). COMMENT ENDS.] [Article: May 2003]

• 2003 - Vatican official urges deepening of Catholic-Muslim dialogue; Keep talking.
   The Record, Western Australia Roman Catholic newspaper, "Vatican official urges deepening of Catholic-Muslim dialogue; Keep talking," by Jerry Filteau, Catholic News Service, p 12, May 1 2003
   A top Vatican official and an internationally renowned Muslim scholar said on April 24 that the quest for peace in the world calls for efforts to advance Catholic-Muslim dialogue at all levels.
   Archbishop Michael L. Fitzgerald, president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, said the very fears and tensions caused by events such as the war on Iraq and the U.S. terrorist attacks in 2002 "have brought Christians and Muslims together, perhaps more than ever before. New opportunities have been created for a constructive dialogue between the adherents of Christianity and Islam. […]
   Imam Abdulaziz Sachedina, a professor of religious studies at the University of Virginia … dialogue … is it reaching the people? … This is where respect has to take place. […]
   Catholics and Muslims, with more than a billion adherents each, account for about a third of the global population. […]
   He spoke briefly of Quran texts that urge respect for Christians and Jews but left it to Imam Sachedina to develop that theme.
   The imam, a Shiite Muslim, … He noted that predominantly Christian Egypt was conquered when Mohammed's son-in-law, Ali, was caliph.  … infuse his heart with mercy, love and kindness […]
   … Archbishop Fitzgerald … aim … live in harmony and peace … lack of religious freedom is also an obstacle to dialogue …
1. New opportunities! Religious freedom? What is that? As reported by Umar b. Abd al-Aziz, Muhammad's last words on his death bed were, "Perish the Jew and the Christians…Beware, there should be no two faiths in Arabia." – GB Gaskin, www.daniel comments/ 1596 , August 1, 2002.
2. Christian Egypt was conquered.  Is conquering the work of people who show "mercy, love and kindness" ?  Did the idea for conquering nations come from God, or the Devil?
3. Quos Deus vult perdere, prius dementat.  Whom God wishes to destroy, He first makes mad. – Latin proverb. COMMENTS END] [May 1, 03]

• 2003 - Londoner behind suicide bomb.  Israel flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  Palestine Authority flag; Palestine Authority website  Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom of, flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  

Londoner behind suicide bomb

   This is London, www.thisis news/article- 4624553- details/ Londoner+ behind+ suicide+ bomb/article. do; jsess ionid= J1DSFRxc6fFLpG 4yVpSpNxxGWPR ZBfhzSGyBh32 wxrzLHy0qgnRm!- 1884529027 ; By Nilufer Atik, Evening Standard, May.01.2003 Killer: Hanif's passport, recovered from a hotel in Tel Aviv; (C) Reuters
   A university student from London was named today as the man who blew himself up in the suicide bomb attack in Tel Aviv, which left three people dead and 55 injured.
   Asif Mohammed Hanif, 21, from Hounslow, west London, was last night named as the fanatic who strapped explosives to his body and set them off outside a crowded bar on Tel Aviv's beachfront.
   Asif was named as Britain's first suicide bomber after his passport was found by Israeli security forces after a bomb went off outside Mike's Place bar, situated on the northern end of a promenade that runs the length of the Tel Aviv beach. He detonated a nail-packed bomb outside the busy venue after he was refused entry by security guards.
   Another Briton, named as Omar Khan Sharif, 27, from Derby, was with Asif at the time of the attack and was also padded with explosives, but they failed to detonate and he ran off.
   Today Asif's shocked family told of their horror after learning that their son had carried out the suicide blast. They said they were stunned, describing Asif as "a big teddy bear" who wouldn't harm anyone.
   Speaking from the family's small, terraced home, his brother, Taz Hanif, said they had been praying a mistake had been made when police identified Asif as the suicide bomber.
   Mr Hanif said: "He wasn't that sort of person. Anyone who knew him would tell you. He was just a big teddy bear - that's what people said about him.
   "We used to watch the news and our parents said the suicide stuff is not good. What do you achieve by killing yourself and killing other people? If he did do that it was wrong - but I can't believe he did."
   Mr Hanif said that Asif had gone to Israel while studying Arabic at Damascus University in Syria and planned to return to London to teach children.
   A friend informed the family that Asif had been identified as the suicide bomber after watching the news. Mr Hanif said: "The friend asked how Asif was. I said he was fine. Then he said I might want to turn on the news.
   "There it was. And when I saw it, I thought, 'this is a wind-up it can't be happening'. I went pale with shock, I couldn't believe it. I spoke to him two weeks ago and he said he was all right and still at university."
   Suggesting he had not yet accepted the news, Mr Hanif added: "I'd ask him to get in touch with us if he is still alive."
   Mr Hanif contacted the police after hearing the news and offered to help with enquiries. He said: "The police were shocked that I got in touch."
   Three people were killed in the explosion - musician Yaniy Weiss, 46, who had been playing at the bar, Ran Baron, a 24-year-old local, and French immigrant Dominique Hess, 29. Another 55 people, mainly young, were also hurt with six described as seriously injured.
   Asif and his accomplice were sent to Mike's Place - situated close to the US Embassy and popular among tourists - by the militant Islamic group Hamas, which entered Israel through the Gaza Strip a few weeks ago.
   In a statement, Hamas claimed responsibility for the bombing and said the attack was launched in conjunction with the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, an offshoot of Palestinian chairman Yasser Arafat's Fatah movement.
   The blast came hours after the Palestinian parliament had confirmed Mahmoud Abbas, who has vowed to crack down on militants, as prime minister.
   The bombing underscored the difficulties Mr Abbas will face in disarming Palestinian militias - a key obligation in the first stage of the three-phase "road map" to the creation of a Palestinian state.
   The plan, drafted by the US, the United Nation, the European Union and Russia, aims to set up a Palestinian state by 2005 through a ceasefire, a crackdown on Palestinian militias and Israeli withdrawal from Palestinian towns.
   The Foreign Office today refused to go into detail about the two Britons involved in yesterday's bomb attack saying only that it was in close contact with the Israeli authorities.
   Israel's deputy ambassador to Britain, Zvi Rav Ner, said the pair's passports, found in a Tel Aviv hostel where they had stayed, were genuine.
   He described Omar Sharif, who is still on the run after his bombing attempt failed, as "very dangerous". The attack has sent shock waves through British security forces, raising fears that a similar attack could happen in the UK. MI5 and Special Branch were put on full alert last night and are currently investigating the backgrounds of the two men.
   Muslim MP Khalid Mahmood said today that the attack had come as little surprise. Mr Mahmood, the Labour member for Birmingham Perry Barr, added: "There are people who have been tolerated for too long in this country who have been allowed to preach their vile doctrines.
   "Young British Muslims probably don't know enough about their own religion to challenge these fanatics."
   Security experts in Britain fear around 200 men from the UK are capable of carrying out suicide bomb attacks.
   A senior security source said of the Tel Aviv bombing: "This has been on the cards for some time.  We knew this would happen one day." #
   [DOCTRINE, Koran: 22:19 (or 20):- … But as for those who disbelieve, garments of fire will be cut out for them; boiling fluid will be poured down on their heads. dept/MSA/ quran/022. qmt.html #022.019 .
   33:1:- O Prophet, fear thou Allah and obey not the unbelievers and the hypocrites; – Truly Allah is Knowing, Wise.   DOCTRINE ENDS.] [May 1, 03]

• 2003 - No singing and dancing in planned purist Islamic nation.   
   BAGHDAD, Iraq, May 7 2003: Mohammed Fartusi, the mullah of Baghdad's biggest mosque al-Heqma, called for Iraqis to embrace his vision of a purist Islamic nation this week,  by outlawing singing and dancing on the grounds that they're 'bad things' (The Observer).
   The fundamentalist Mullah made his plea to tens of thousands of Iraqis at last week's Friday prayers, telling the faithful that discotheques are 'symbols of western influence'.
   His campaign against night clubs came just weeks after American authorities launched their own concerted crackdown against night life, via the frighteningly puritanical RAVE Act, suggesting Iraq is unlikely to be branded 'the new Ibiza' in the foreseeable future. – Zebrahype, in "Skruff" column, p 7, issue 203, [May 7 03]
   CONTACT: Zebrahype, Publication No PP 600110.00006; Suite 73 / 102 Railway Parade, City West Business Centre, West Perth, WA, 6005; Locked Bag 31, West Perth WA 6872, Australia; Tel (08) 9213 2888, Fax (08) 9213 2882; www. zebrahype. , editor § zebrahype com au . [May 7 03]
• 2003 - Motherly peck earns 74 lashes under Islamic law.  
   IRAN: Fifty-something Iranian actress Gowhar Kheirandish was sentenced to 74 lashes of the whip this week, after a Shariah court found her guilty of kissing a 20-something bloke on the cheek in public (The Guardian).
   Merciful officials suspended her punishment though stressed it will be carried out if she repeats her crime, which Iranian authorities consider is un-Islamic unless both parties are related and kiss in private.
   "What happened was an emotional, motherly gesture," the apparently shameless sex criminal suggested. "I have nothing more to add." – Zebrahype, in "Skruff" column, p 7, issue 203, [May 7 03]
• 2003 - Quartet's blind eye to deathly division
   PERTH, W. Australia: The road map to peace in the Near East looks more like a bad case of measles.
   The killings by both sides that have accompanied its announcement are completely predictable.
   The "quartet" of US, EU, UN and Russia, singing in unison, know that the plan cannot be accepted by any Arab leader, unless he wanted to be a martyr to a rotten cause.
   The quartet's planned future for the Palestinians, whether Muslim, Christian, or other, is the death by a thousand cuts.  They are to subsist in little areas, cut off from each other and the country's main wealth and water. – Wanneroo Times (Perth suburban newspaper), letter, p 16, Tue May 13 03
• 2003 - Explosions in Saudi expat housing.  [ 29 murdered]  
   RIYADH, Saudi Arabia: There have been reports from Saudi Arabia that three bombs have gone off in the eastern part of the capital, Riyadh.
   According to diplomatic sources, bombs went off at three separate locations in Riyadh.
   The bombs appear to have been targeting expatriate housing.
   According to an early report citing Saudi security officials, at least one of the explosions was a car bomb, which crashed into a compound in the eastern part of the city, causing some injuries.
   Witnesses say ambulances have been seen speeding in and out of the al-Hamra compound, as thick plumes of smoke rise into the night sky. -- ABC (Australia), , 8:43am (AEST), Tuesday, May 13, 2003.
• 2003 - Iran condemns; Saudi triple bomb attacks kill 29.     
   ABC (Australia), "Iran condemns Saudi bomb attacks," au/news/news items/s854897.htm , Wednesday, May 14, 2003.
   SAUDI ARABIA, May 14, 2003: Iran has become the latest country to condemn the triple car bomb attacks in Saudi Arabia yesterday.
   At least 29 people, including the nine suicide bombers, died in the attacks on three foreign housing compounds.
   Iran's Foreign Minister Kamal Kharazi told his Saudi counterpart Prince Saud al-Faisal that there was no justification for the attacks and that terrorism only increased tension and hatred.
   Investigators are still sifting through the wreckage of three housing compounds destroyed when suicide bombers shot their way into the guarded compounds and blew up carloads of explosives.
   Saudi officials still maintain the death toll stands at 29, including nine suicide bombers with more than 200 people wounded.
   A Sydney man was among the dead as well as Saudis, Jordanians, Lebanese, Filipinos, and Americans.
   [COMMENT: On television, a woman relative of one of the victims said that the guards had no weapons! Not much has been made of this by other news broadcasts, but I tend to believe her. The Saudi "family government" has much to learn, evidently! For "justification" in the minds of the murderers, look no further than the schoolbook which tells them "It is allowed to burn or destroy the bastions of kufar (infidels)." COMMENT ENDS.] [May 14, 03]

• Saudis must 'deal' with domestic terror: US.   
   UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: The United States has gingerly chided Saudi Arabia for not doing more to prevent deadly suicide bombings in Riyadh, warning the kingdom "must deal" with terrorists within its borders. Thirty-four people were killed in the attacks, including eight Americans and one Australian.
   US officials are taking pains to avoid alienating the country now feared to be the epicentre of Al Qaeda activity, shunning direct attacks even as they made clear they did not think Riyadh's response to recent threats had been adequate.
   "There is hard work ahead," following the triple suicide attacks targeted at western expatriate compounds in the Saudi capital, national security adviser Condoleezza Rice said at the State Department. [Picture caption: Wreckage from suicide blasts in Saudi housing compound (Reuters)] – ABC (Australia), , Thursday, May 15, 2003
   [COMMENT: Well, the Saudis can't really "deal" with it. The rulers have been allowing the young people and all ages to be trained in hate for about 100 years, on condition that the ruling family is not attacked. The royals pay to spread these doctrines around the world. These facts have been on the record for years in news media and books; a good recent summary is in the February 2003 Reader's Digest, and other evidence was turning up in books, newspapers and electronic media long before September 11, 2001. Church missionary groups have long dossiers on the murders and persecutions their converts and the missioners suffer in many countries. COMMENT ENDS] [May 15 03]

• They are all white.   
   INDONESIA: An Indonesian defendant asked about his belief that the Americans were doing evil things to Muslims, but that various other nationalities had been killed in one of the bombings, said words to the effect: What does it matter, they are all white. [Approx. date May 16 03]
• 39 killed in Casablanca bomb attacks: Official. CASABLANCA, Morocco: Morocco flag;  
   The death toll from a string of suicide bombings in the Moroccan city of Casablanca overnight has risen to 39, local authorities say.
   "Fifteen people hurt in the attacks Friday night have died from their injuries, bringing the death toll to 39," the Casablanca prefecture was quoted by the official MAP news agency as saying.
   The prefecture says most of the victims were Moroccans. – ABC (Australia), .au/news/ newsitems/ s857305.htm , Update: 8:02pm (AEST), Saturday, May 17, 2003.
• Global alert for terrorist attacks.   
   Sitting ducks: how Saudis failed expats (with map), p 1, continued to p 2, – The Weekend Australian, May 17-18 03
• Fazul Abdullah Mohammed being sought over deadly attacks.    MOMBASSA, Kenya: Africa's most wanted terrorist was being hunted yesterday among hundreds of British holiday-makers in the Indian Ocean resort town of Mombassa in Kenya. Last year he had planned simultaneous attacks on the Paradise Hotel in Kikambala, near Mombassa, and a missile strike on an Israeli charter flight leaving Mombassa in November. The US FBI already had a $US 40 million bounty on Mohammed, whom it had indicted for masterminding the synchronised truck bombings of the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998. (with picture) – The Weekend Australian, "Hunt for Africa's most wanted," The Times, by Daniel McGrory, Jonathan Clayton, Nairobi; p 2, May 17-18 03
• Top Palestinian negotiator resigns; death and destruction continue. PALESTINE / ISRAEL: Palestinian Negotiations Minister MR Saeb Erakat, 48, resigned from his post ahead of weekend talks between the new Palestinian Authority PM Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli PM Ariel Sharon. (He had been excluded from the talks, but gave no reason for his resignation.) Israel's army yesterday continued to comb the northern Gaza strip, reoccupying Beit Hanoun and parts of Beit Lahia and Jabalya. At least eight houses were demolished and large swaths of farmland razed. The army said it was to stop rocket attacks on army positions and Jewish [illegal] settlements. They shot dead a Palestinian, bringing to 2444 the number of Palestinians killed since the intifada began 31 months ago, compared with 731 Israelis. The army arrested five, and demolished a Nablus house, belonging to a member of the Abu Ali Mustafa Brigades which had attacked a Jewish settlement. – The Weekend Australian, "Top Palestinian negotiator resigns," p 14, May 17-18 03
• More than 260 Iraqi regime leaders captured, plus one of the top 55.    DAWR, Iraq: – The Weekend Australian, "US raid captures top Iraqi official," p 15, May 17-18 03
• Saddam justice: executed by explosives.
Iran a base for al-Qa'ida leaders.The Weekend Australian, p 15, May 17-18, 03
• Let's face it: we're in for a long war.The Weekend Australian, by Greg Sheridan, p 17, May 17-18, 03
• Aceh's history of no surrender.The Weekend Australian, by Sian Powell, p 17, May 17-18, 03
• Facing up to the cost of terror. Editorial.   
   The Weekend Australian, p 18, May 17-18 2003 [Fragments only, with comments.]
   AUSTRALIA: There is evidence that the Government of Saudi Arabia has turned a blind eye over the years to terrorists working from the country, and one of the most passionate goals of the Al-Qa'ida terror network was to end the military presence of the US there. Yet despite being left alone there, and the recent American decision to withdraw their forces from Saudi Arabia, the terrorists struck there. [COMMENT: Logically, yes! However, to a theocratic person, all other groups are enemies, who if they move back a step are showing weakness, so the attack ought to be redoubled. So these and other foreigners were quickly attacked. ENDS] […]
   There is very little that liberal democratic nations can do to end the risk. Certainly there is no way to negotiate with terrorists driven by millenarian ambitions of theocratic rule according to their own warped misreadings of the Muslim faith. [COMMENT: Warped misreadings, or literal readings? ENDS.] And any suggestion that we made ourselves a target by standing with our American allies in Iraq ignores the fact that the Bali bombing occurred months before the war. [COMMENT: Correct. But the misty-eyed chatterers will be repeating their error for years to come. ENDS] […]
   the risk that potential terrorists are already here and that they can be easily joined by associates with murder on their mind cannot be downplayed. [Emphasis added.]
   [COMMENT: Hear, hear! But we must be kind to all our web-footed friends! So we must accept self-inflicted terrorism, via misguided kindness to "refugees" plus our need to "address" our "skills shortage" by "skilled immigration" and our "capital shortage" by "investor immigration" for decades to come, if it keeps the sobsisters' and trendy clerics' consciences clear! ENDS.] [May 17-18, 03]

• Bombs shift focus to House of Saud. Letter.   
   The Weekend Australian, letter, p 18, May 17-18 03
   AUSTRALIA: The bombings in Riyadh bring home that the focus in the war on terrorism must come to one of its two nerve centres in the Islamic world: Saudi Arabia. The main source of Islamic terrorism is Iran. The Saudi-financed Wahabi sect is next.
   For decades the House of Saud has had a pact with this sect to let the Saud family run the county while the Wahabis rule in matters of spirit. Instead of proper curricula, this has given Saudi schools a syllabus that fits their youth for unemployment and religious militancy. An unemployment rate that Time magazine estimates at 30 per cent tells you all you need to know about the quality of the country's education. One of the most likely occupations for a young man is in the country's religious police.
   The Saudis either crack down on terrorism now and cut Wahabi funding or it should done for them. It isn't just the US's policy of pragmatism towards Saudi Arabia that must end. Every country should adopt the principle: it's terrorism or sovereignty – you can't have both. [May 17-18, 03]
• Deep historical roots, terror the very culture.
   The Weekend Australian, letter from Paul Rozental [COMMENT: You know where he's coming from! COMMENT ENDS.], Melbourne, Vic., May 17-18 03, p 18
   AUSTRALIA: While it is fashionable to depict the Palestinian-Israel conflict as the heart of discontent in the Middle East, closer examination tells a different story.
   The region has been consumed by civil, internecine and national religious wars from Algeria and Lebanon to the Iran-Iraq and Kuwaiti wars that between them have cost the lives of millions, kept the region backward, and have nothing whatsoever to do with the Palestine question.
   Neil Clark's equally bizarre suggestion (Opinion, 16/5) is that terrorism has originated and is fuelled by the US incursion into Iraq. The terrorism has deep historical roots and is the very culture and lexicon of the Arab world, which after the fall of the Ottoman empire could not see its way to creating even a single democratic state. [May 17-18, 03]
• Looking for excuses to murder.
   The Weekend Australian, letter, p 18, May 17-18 03
   AUSTRALIA: Neil Clark says Uncle Sam has inflamed Islamic hatred by toppling a regime that murdered and tortured many thousands of Muslims and went to war with an Islamic country. [Make that two countries.] Any Muslim who can hate the US for getting rid of [Saddam] Hussein is looking for excuses to carry out bloody murder. [May 17-18, 03]
• Suicide bombers in Israel on May 18 2003.
   The West Australian, "Peace talks blown apart; Deadly attacks divert historic steps to settling Middle-East conflict," p 18, Mon May 19 2003
   JERUSALEM, Palestine and Israel: Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon has put off a trip to Washington to discuss a new Middle East peace plan after a bomber killed seven people yesterday in Jerusalem.
   The Palestinian bomber, said to be Bassem Jamil Tarkrouri, 18, of Hebron, blew himself up on an Israeli commuter bus, killing himself and at least seven passengers and wounding 20.
   The murders occurred about 6am in the French Hill district of Jerusalem.
   [COMMENT: This heading is correct about "historic steps." Although President George W. Bush seems to be a sturdy opponent of democracy and freedom, one positive aspect was when, some months ago while trying to build a "coalition of the willing," he declared that the United States would work towards allowing a viable separate Palestinian State to be set up. To my knowledge this was the first time the U.S. had accepted that concept, which is quite alien to the majority of the Israeli leadership, and the Judaist extremists, settlers, etc. Palestinian Muslim extremists, instead of holding a pause in their murders, kept on, thus helping to frustrate whatever goodwill existed around the world.
   The recently-unveiled "Roadmap to Peace" is tilted against the Palestinians; even so, the Palestinians have called for it to be adopted, but the Israeli cabinet is delaying. No-one can tell whether this is a pose to calm the Arabs and pro-peace activists, or a genuine fear of actually talking over their "imperial" aims with foreigners in the "Quartet." COMMENT ENDS] [May 19, 03]

• Bali bomber quotes Koran – make enemies frightened.   
   Based on The West Australian, "Bali bomb man gloats at deaths," p 6, Monday May 19 2003
   DENPASAR, Indonesia: "Terrorism is ordered by Allah – in the Koran it means make our enemies frightened," accused Bali bomber Amrozi, 40, who is facing a criminal trial, said yesterday. "There will be more bombs till the Westerners are finished, all of them who attack Muslims and attack humanity."
   He said he was not sorry for the Australian victims of the bombings. "They come here, Americans, Jews and their allies. They want to colonise … make us weak."
   His co-accused, the religious leader Imam Samudra (alleged bombing mastermind) – who said last week that more terrorist attacks would follow the Riyadh suicide bombings – was also unrepentant. "Your country is still killing our people," he said. "We're still killing your people also."
   [COMMENT: Is Amrozi a better theologian than many Westerners and others who say Islam is peaceful? Read 4 - 8:12: "When your Lord revealed to the angels: I am with you, therefore make firm those who believe. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve." COMMENT ENDS] [Newsitem date: May 19, 03]

• Australian Federal Police want to stay in Asia permanently! AUSTRALIA: The Australian Federal Police are lobbying to keep an indefinite presence in South-East Asia amid fears of a wave of fresh terrorist attacks. They will ask Asian police chiefs who plan to meet in the Philippines this month to keep an Australian flying squad in the region, initially in Indonesia. The West Australian, "Police to seek Asia presence," p 6, Monday May 19 2003
   [COMMENT: To understand the stupidity of this move, firstly read Amrozi's statement. To a careful reader of the Koran, wouldn't Australian police moving in look like a preliminary move to take Muslim lands – a pre-colonising move? (In history, traders plus sealers and whalers and missionaries oftentimes came first, then came trading posts with forts, and in most cases conquest was the final result.)
   It is also important to note that bad taxation policies and wasteful spending in Australia have meant less and less finance for policing, so that many companies and communities (and some criminals too) have hired their own mercenaries – sorry, security guards. So, who will go short of police protection if police are posted overseas? Perhaps, also, Australian politicians ought to ponder on the bombings of American bases in African and other countries – how much would it cost to defend the Australian police target – sorry, base? COMMENT ENDS] Newsitem date: May 19 03

• Islamic Values. WESTERN AUSTRALIA: Islamic College advertisement for opening of new kindergarten and pre-primary class for Kewdale, Thornlie and Dianella, taking enrolments for this year. PO Box 1133, Booragoon WA 6954, Tel (618) 9330 6422, Facsimile (618) 9317 1520; Website , E-mail – The Sunday Times, advertisement "The Australian Islamic College; For Islamic Values and Academic Excellence within a Caring Environment," p 30, May 25 2003
• Quotes from Islamists. How can I feel sorry? I am very happy (Westerners died) because they attack Muslims and are inhuman. There will be more bombs till the Westerners are finished. (Accused Bali bomber Amrozi on the likelihood of more terrorist attacks.)
   Oh Muslims, take your decision against the embassies of America, England, Australia and Norway, their interests, their companies and their employees. Turn the earth under their feet into fire. (One of Osama bin Laden's top lieutenants, Ayman al-Zawahri, in an audiotape played on Arabic TV.) – The Sunday Times, part of "Quotes of the week," p 56, May 25 2003
• We're bombers' banking centre. AUSTRALIA: Australia was soft on terrorism and the banking centre for the Bali bombers, a leader world terrorism expert said at the Menzies Research Centre, Australia. Dr Rohan Gunaratna also revealed at least 12 Australians had been trained in al-Quaida terror camps. He is the author of Inside al-Qaeda. He said a Jemaah Islamiyah member had formed the Australian cell known as Mantiki Four, which was led by an Indonesian-Australian who had since left the country. – The Advertiser, Adelaide, South Australia, "We're bombers' banking centre," by Ian McPhedran, p 11, Wed May 28, 2003
• Violence to remove all non-Muslims from Lebanon area. AUSTRALIA: Hizbollah – Translation: Party of God. Also known as: Islamic Jihad, Ansar Allah. 2000 to 5000 paid and armed members. Operates in Lebanon, aided by Iran and Syria. Radical Shia group formed in Lebanon in the late 1970s, dedicated to remove all non-Islamic influences from the area. (Then followed a list of its attacks, including suicide bombings and an air hijack.) – The Advertiser, Adelaide, South Australia, "Freedom fighters or terrorists?" p 11, Wed May 28, 2003
• Hizbollah not terrorist, according to Palestinian lobby.
   CANBERRA: The Government is seeking blanket powers to ban any organisation it wants to, but there is opposition in Parliament. Both sides want to outlaw the terrorist wing of Lebanese political group Hizbollah. Their sympathisers and fundraisers are active in Australia.
   However, the head of the Palestinian Delegation in Canberra, Ali Kazak, denied that Hizbollah was a terrorist organisation. It wanted to liberate the Lebanese territories occupied by Israel since 1982
   "Australia's Middle East policy should condemn violations by Israel rather than adopting Israel's foreign policy," he said. "This will be very damaging to Australia's reputation in the eyes of the Arab world."
   – The Advertiser, "Hizbollah must go but what about the others," by Ian McPhedran, page 11, Wed May 28, 2003
   [COMMENT: Yes, Israel is not termed a "terrorist state," but having been founded on three terrorist organisations, and having stolen land in the 1940s, they defy the world organisations for 21 years! This newsitem doesn't add that the conquest of Palestine really began years before the 1940s, with the support of the power blocs and other governments. COMMENT ENDS.] [May 28, 03]

• Millions being charged to Australia for Iraq war.   
   MELBOURNE: Australia will be billed several million dollars by the United States for bombs it dropped on Iraq. The accounts that are due to arrive will include the cost of food eaten by some Diggers.
   The Australian Defence Forces (ADF) also will be required to pay possibly up to $3 million for satellite time and bandwidth to connect the Canberra war-room and enable it to talk directly with Special Air Service troops (SAS) on the ground.
   Someone was able to charge a "premium" price, one expert said. A private UK firm will charge the ADF up to $1 million a day for Ilyushin heavy-lift aircraft.
   – The Advertiser, "Bomb bill for attack on Iraq," by Mark Dunn, in Melbourne, p 22, Wed May 28, 2003
• Refugee's drastic step.    
   LONDON: Iranian refugee Abas Amini, 33, a political poet and Communist activist who fled Iran to Britain two years ago, has sewn up his eyes, ears and mouth in protest at his treatment by the British Government. – The Advertiser, "Refugee's drastic step," Wed May 28, 2003, p 31
[COMMENT: Well, a Communist mightn't be very welcome anywhere, if governments remember the decades of Communist terror, plus the oppression of their own people and invasions. Why doesn't he emigrate to a Communist country? Cuba, China, and North Korea are still Communist dictatorships. COMMENT ENDS.] [May 28, 03]
• US soldiers target of Iraq street violence; oil cartel plans to cut production.   
   BAGHDAD: Four US soldiers have been killed and six others wounded amid a flareup of guerrilla activity and street violence.
   The deaths came yesterday as US administrator Paul Bremer marked the US Memorial Day holiday by honouring the more than 190 war dead from the US-British-Iraqi resistance coalition ["invasion" and/or "occupation" coalition seems more accurate].  …
   OPEC president Abdullah bin Hamad al-Attiyah said members could slash production at a June 11 ministerial meeting, to avoid a price collapse once Iraq's oil hits the world market again, possibly as early as June.
   The UN Security Council last week agreed to lift oil sanctions imposed on Iraq after its 1990 invasion of Kuwait, paving the way for exports needed to fuel reconstruction after the postwar US administration. – The Advertiser, "US soldiers target of Iraq street violence," AFP, p 31, Wed May 28, 2003.
• Palestinians go with Jews to mourn victims of Nazis. WARSAW: 120 Arabs and 130 Jews stood as the Jewish prayer for the dead was recited during an unprecedented joint visit to the Auschwitz death camp. (Picture showed Father Emil Shoufani, an Arab Catholic priest, and others on the joint visit.) – The West Australian, "Death camp bridges the gap," Thu May 29, 2003 p 22
• Missionaries under cover; Growing numbers of Evangelicals are trying to spread Christianity in Muslim lands. But is this what the world needs now?
   Time magazine, (USA, and Australia), by David Van Biema, pp 48-56, June 30, 2003
   Of the three Abrahamic faiths, Islam is the most ferociously opposed to the straying of its flock. Shari'a law calls for the death penalty for those who convert to other religions, and although the penalty is not binding in most Muslim-majority states, persecution is common. This alone would not retard missions work. Most evangelists accept it as a cost of sharing faith. What did slow their efforts was a more prosaic measure: the gradual elimination by most Muslim countries of professional "religious worker" visas.
   [The religion-based murders of several Christian missionaries, and other facts about persecution (official and unofficial), are in the article.]

  Missionaries under cover  
  Growing numbers of Evangelicals are trying to spread Christianity in Muslim lands. But is this what the world needs now?  

   Time magazine, (USA, and Australia), Extracts of the article by David Van Biema, pp 48-56, June 30, 2003
   p 50 (b) – Sept. 11 appears only to have fueled the impulse. Yet this boom has coincided with mounting restrictions on missionary efforts by the regimes of Islamic-majority countries and with swelling anti-Western militancy. The resulting tensions have sometimes erupted tragically: the past two years have seen the arrest and imprisonment of two American missionaries in Taliban-ruled Afghanistan and the apparently religiously motivated murders of four more in Yemen and Lebanon. The botched bombing last month of a Dutch-German missionary family in Tripoli, Lebanon, suggests the danger is not abating.
   p 51 (b) – But in societies in which state and mosque are closely intertwined, in which defamation of Islam is a crime and conversion out of it can invite vigilante violence, the more audacious missionaries are engaged, intentionally or not, in provocation, and their actions are debated even within the evangelical community. Some experts see their clumsiness as the product of nondenominational churches lacking the resources for proper training programs. Others suggest that the culprits are "short termers" who don't stay in the region long enough to witness the cycles of retribution their confrontational styles can touch off.
   p 52 (b, c) – Of the three Abrahamic faiths, Islam is the most ferociously opposed to the straying of its flock. Shari'a law calls for the death penalty for those who convert to other religions, and although the penalty is not binding in most Muslim-majority states, persecution is common. This alone would not retard missions work. Most evangelists accept it as a cost of sharing faith. What did slow their efforts was a more prosaic measure: the gradual elimination by most Muslim countries of professional "religious worker" visas.
   p 53 [Pictures] –
  MASSACRE A suspected Islamist militant murdered Dr. Martha Myers, left (with Yemeni children); William Koehn, above left; and Kathleen Gariety, above right, at Jibla Baptist Hospital in Yemen last December.
  MARTYRED Bonnie Witherall captured the admiring sympathy of other Evangelicals after her murder at a prenatal clinic in Sidon, Lebanon, last November.
  HOSTAGES Missionaries in the Philippines for 16 years, Martin and Gracia Burnham, above with abductor Abu Sabaya, were kidnapped while on vacation in 2001. Martin was killed during a rescue raid.
   p 54 (c), 55 (a) – … the shocking death last November of Bonnie Witherall, 31, a nurse's assistant at the Christian and Missionary Alliance prenatal clinic in Sidon, Lebanon, a facility funded partly by Franklin Graham's Samaritan's Purse organization.  One morning as she arrived to open the clinic, an unknown assailant shot her three times in the head. … members of the Alliance … had received threats after local imams denounced them for allegedly handing out Christian literature and evangelizing to Muslim youth.
   p 55 (a, b) – "Sam," 46, recalls the day Israeli soldiers spotted his white Citroen van on the shoulder of a back road outside the West Bank town of Nablus and, hearing the murmuring behind its closed curtains, concluded they had stumbled on a nest of suicide bombers.  At gunpoint, the American exited his vehicle and explained that the six Palestinians with him were a clandestine Christian Bible-study group avoiding the prying eyes of their neighbors. "They are in danger," he told the baffled soldiers – "in danger of being killed." …
   p 55 (b) – Some of the converts, say their co-believers and local diplomats, paid for their faith with arrests, beatings and torture at the hands of Palestinian forces.  The same sources report that one man was then turned over to Fatah militiamen, who killed him.
   PAUL MARSHALL, OF THE HUMAN-rights group Freedom House, says that although conversion is a crime in some Muslim-majority countries, "the biggest problem is that somebody else, a family member or local vigilante, will kill you, and the state will not intervene."  A 2001 study prepared for the Southern Baptist Convention's International Mission Board by a strategy coordinator for "un-reached people groups" in Africa's Horn describes his experience in a country where, he claims, "the majority of believers in Jesus Christ were systematically hunted down and martyred."  Such perils support the missionary argument that some Muslims remain in the fold less out of faith than out of fear.
   p 56 (b) – Yet there should be no question that while most evangelical missionaries love Muslims, they hope to replace Islam.  Some cringed at Graham's "evil and wicked" description, but their critique was more about tone than substance. […]
   Clearly, this ideology is at odds with President Bush's statements that Islam is a religion of peace, his visit to a Washington, D.C., mosque and his invitation to prominent Muslims to break their Ramadan fast at the White House. […] – With reporting by Perry Bacon Jr. and James Carney / Washington, Amanda Bower and Manya Brachear / New York, Jeff Chu / London and Matthew Kalman / Jerusalem
[June 30, 03] Inside Islam, ALI and SPENCER, 22.7kB

• Suicide bombing, as covered in: Inside Islam: A Guide for Catholics, 2003, by ALI, Daniel, and SPENCER, Robert,

  pages 123-24 (endnote pp 164-65).
87. Are suicide attacks by terrorists in the name of Islam justified by the Koran?
   Opinions on this point differ among Muslim scholars. Some condemn suicide attacks on the basis of Sura 4:29: "O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: But let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will: Nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hath been to you Most Merciful!" [4:33 in some books]
   However, other Muslim authorities justify suicide bombing, pointing out that numerous other verses promise Paradise for someone who is killed fighting for Allah. Indeed, this is the only guarantee of Paradise given in the Koran.
   Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when you have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them) … But those who are slain in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost. Soon He will guide them and improve their condition, and admit them to the Garden which He has announced for them (Sura 47:4-6; see also Sura 3:157). [47:4-7, 3:152 in some books]
   One passage chides those who shrink from fighting and praises those who wish for death:
   If a wound hath touched you, be sure a similar wound hath touched the others. Such days (of varying fortunes) We give to men and men by turns: that Allah may know those who believe, and that He may take to himself martyr-witnesses to Truth. … Did ye think that ye would enter Heaven without Allah testing those of you who fought hard (In His Cause) and remained steadfast? Ye did indeed wish for death before ye met him: Now ye have seen him with your own eyes, (And ye flinch!) (Sura 3:140-143) [3:134-7 in some books.]
   On the basis of these and other similar passages, the foremost cleric in Sunni Islam, Sheikh Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi, the Grand Sheikh of Al Azhar University in Cairo, "emphasized that every martyrdom operation against any Israeli, including children, women, and teenagers, is a legitimate act according to [Islamic] religious law, and an Islamic commandment." 88 It seems clear that Tantawi's view is held by many in the Islamic world, judging by the events of recent history. – pages 123-24
88 Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), "Leading Egyptian Government Clerica Calls For: 'Martyrdom Attacks that Strike Horror into the Hearts of the Enemies of Allah'," MEMRI Special Dispatch Series 363, April 7, 2002. www.memri. org . – Endnote pp 164-65

   Publisher: Ascension Press www.ascension, West Chester (PA, USA); 180pp, 14cm x 21.75cm (5 1/2 x 8 1/2 inches), Soft Covers, Endnotes, Index, Appendix Nostra Aetate of Vatican II. $AUD 32.00 on Nov 28, 2005. ISBN 0 - 9659228 - 5 - 5. [2003]

• [Smiling song: Banish the Zionist bastards! Banish the filthy Christians! You can't stop us. It will never end.]
   DENPASAR, Indonesia: Amrozi bin Nurhasyim, 41, the "smiling bomber", during trial in Indonesia for his part in the Bali bombings, said he took part in the attack to avenge the suffering of Muslims at the hands of the United States and Israel and their Christian allies.
   Banish the Zionist bastards! Banish the filthy Christians! You can't stop us. It will never end. – The West Australian, "Smiling song of death by Bali accused," Friday August 1, 2003, p 7
• Iraq: At Least 11 Dead In Jordanian Embassy Bombing In Baghdad.     BAGHDAD, Iraq: At least 11 people died today when a suspected truck bomb exploded outside the Jordanian Embassy in Baghdad. It was the first time an Arab political symbol has been targeted in the Iraqi capital since the U.S. occupation. The commander of U.S. troops in Iraq, General Ricardo Sanchez, said "We've had some NGOs [Non-Government Organisations] that were attacked and had people killed in them,  …" News agencies say a number of Iraqis entered the compound after the blast, destroying the Jordanian flag and ripping up pictures of King Abdullah. – Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, "Iraq: At Least 11 Dead In Jordanian Embassy Bombing In Baghdad," nca/features/ 2003/08/07 0820031 65228.asp , By Askold Krushelnycky, Aug 7 2003
• [Indonesia cleric rallies supporters; don't be afraid to keep up the shariah fight.] Indonesia flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   BBC News, "Indonesia cleric rallies supporters," uk/1/hi/world/ asia-pacific/ 3139273.stm , 13:54 GMT 14:54 UK, Sunday, August 10, 2003
   INDONESIA: The Indonesian Islamic cleric believed to be the spiritual leader of the Jemaah Islamiah (JI) group has urged his followers to stay true to their faith.
   In a message from his prison cell, Abu Bakar Ba'asyir said Muslims should strive to impose Islamic law without fear of being labelled terrorists.
   JI members are suspected of both the bomb attack on a luxury Jakarta hotel this week and the Bali bombings last year.
   Some 3,000 people, many in paramilitary uniform, gathered in the open air in Solo, central Java, on Sunday to hear their leader's words.
   "Do not be afraid of being labelled as trying to overthrow [the government] or as terrorists when you are carrying out Islamic Sharia [law]," he said in the message, read out by one of his deputies.
   Mr Ba'asyir is himself facing trial for attacks on Christian churches and treason.
   The crowds in Solo, where Mr Ba'asyir has his power base and runs a religious school, shouted "God is Great" in response.
   Mr Ba'asyir also warned the Indonesian Government against arresting religious leaders and teachers.
   Foreign links.
   Many of the suspects in the Bali bombings, as well as the chief suspect in Tuesday's attack on the Marriott Hotel, went to Mr Ba'asyir's school. Indonesian Defence Minister Matori Abdul Djalil has named JI as the prime suspect in the Marriott attack, in which 10 people died.
   He also linked the group to al-Qaeda, saying that members had trained with the group in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
   [Picture: Mr Ba'asyir denies JI even exists]
   The US has warned that militants may be planning more terror attacks against its interests in Indonesia.
   At least 33 suspected JI members are either on trial, or awaiting trial, for the Bali attacks which killed 202 people, many of them tourists.
   The group was formed in the mid-1980s by two Indonesian clerics.
   Its principal goal is the establishment of a unified South East Asian Islamic state stretching from southern Thailand, through the Malay Peninsula, including Singapore and across the Indonesian archipelago, and into the southern Philippines.
[Aug 10, 2003]

• Iran rejects women's equality ruling. Iran (Persia) flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   Aljazeera.Net, "Iran rejects women's equality ruling," http://english. NR/exeres/8B8335E2- 1D4E-4DD3-9EAB- A87987393370.htm , 5:19 Makka Time, 2:19 GMT, Wednesday 13 August 2003,
   IRAN: Iran's conservative Guardian Council has rejected an international treaty which claims to eliminate discrimination against women. State television said the Council decided on Tuesday to turn down the United Nations' convention, claiming it was un-Islamic and incompatible with Sharia law and the constitution.
   Reformist parliamentarians were strongly criticised by Guardian Council conservatives, many of who claimed the convention was colonialist and against Islamic traditions.
   The reformist-dominated parliament ratified the bill last month, believing it would help promote Iran's image abroad and help domestic problems at home. But the unelected body vets all legislation in accordance with Sharia law and has been at odds with parliament on many occasions in recent months.
   Reaction: President Muhammad Khatami acknowledged on Tuesday he had failed to fulfil pledges to the young voters who elected him to introduce more social and political freedoms, the state news agency IRNA reported.
   "These days, it is difficult for me to speak because I feel the convictions that I held, what I said and expressed with sincerity and what people believed, have not been achieved," the president said in a speech.
   Khatami, first elected in 1997, thanks to a massive youth vote, stressed the importance of living up to young people's expectations and warned that ignoring them would exacerbate tensions in the Islamic republic.
   "Not taking into account young people and their expectations, and using religion and values to marginalise causes massive problems in our society," he said.
   The remarks were a veiled swipe at Islamic conservatives who control the courts and top state arbitration bodies that have repeatedly undermined the reform efforts of Khatami's government.
   About 70 per cent of the Iranian population is aged under 30. (Picture: President Khatami has expressed his personal disappointment at slow reform)
   Related items: Iran wrestles with women's rights law ; Khatami to resign if people want ; Rafsanjani: Protests strengthened system ; Street fights erupt in Tehran . – Aljazeera.Net, Wednesday 13 August 2003, 5:19
• "US lawsuit for Bali victims". PERTH: West Australians affected by the Bali bombing could sue for damages through American courts, visiting United States lawyer Richard Middleton said. Some Saudi royals, several Middle East banks and numerous pro-Muslim organisations in the US were funding terrorist acts. – The West Australian, by Tony Barrass, p 32, Thursday August 14, 2003
• Suicide bus bomb in Jerusalem.      JERUSALEM: A suicide bomber killed and wounded many people in Jerusalem on Aug 19, 2003.  Two terrorist groups claimed responsibility. Aug 19, 03
• United Nations Baghdad headquarters target of bomb. - Vieira de Mello and others murdered.   
   BAGHDAD, Iraq: Many Iraqis and foreigners working for the United Nations in Baghdad were killed when what is believed to have been a suicide bomb, a truckload of explosives, blew up at the UN hq there.
   Among those killed was Sr. Sergio Vieira de Mello, 55, a Brazilian, the UN special representative in Iraq, who was co-ordinating humanitarian aid, similar to his previous work in East Timor and Kosovo.
   – Adapted from The West Australian, "Baghdad bomb; United Nations headquarters target of truck blast," p 1, Wed Aug 20, 2003
• Judaists ask taxpayer to pay for their security.
   The Weekend Australian, "Help us pay for security, say Jews," by Trudy Harris, p 9, August 23-24, 2003
   AUSTRALIA: THE Jewish community is seeking financial help from the federal Govern­ment for the cost of sec­urity at synagogues and schools, which tops $40 million a year.
   Jewish leaders have warned that small synagogues and community groups could go broke because of the rising security costs sparked by ter­rorism in Southeast Asia and the Middle East.
   NSW and Victorian leaders want subsidies for security costs or tax deducibility for individual donations to sec­urity, such as costs of hiring security firms or installing video cameras.
   They said the federal Gov­ernment should help promote religious freedom, which meant providing secure places of worship.
   NSW Jewish Board of Depu­ties president Stephen Roth­man said the situation was heightened by revelations from law enforcement agencies that an al-Qa'ida cell had planned attacks on Jewish institutions in Sydney and Melbourne.
   Mining magnate Joe Gutnick was also the target of an al-Qa'ida-sanctioned assassination plot before September 11, 2001. And synagogues, museums, schools and the homes of rabbis have suffered anti-Semitic attacks in recent years, including arson, graffiti and looting.
   Mr Rothman said the Jewish community was not seeking special treatment from other religious groups - but build­ings risked being attacked because they were Jewish.
   "It's a huge cost and well beyond what community organ­isations can cope with." he said, adding that the annual bill was between $35 million and $40 mil­lion once protection of high-profile Jews was included.
   Federal Multicultural Affairs Minister Gary Hargrave said securing synagogues, mosques and temples was a state res­ponsibility.
   He urged the NSW Govern­ment to strengthen security to alleviate costs to the Jewish community.
   A spokesman for NSW Pol­ice Minister John Watkins said police, and in particular the Counter-Terrorism Command Centre, worked closely with the Jewish community.
   Islamic Council of Victoria president Yasser Soliman said rising insurance premiums were a major concern for the Muslim community, with some mosques unable to afford insurance and others, in the past, denied insurance because of the perceived threat of terrorism.
   Jewish Community Council of Victoria president Michael Lipshutz said the Terrorism Insurance Bill, passed in federal parliament last month guaranteed places of worshij cover for terrorism. But M: Lipshutz said the legislation did little to reduce premiums which should be capped.
   Mr Rotliman said insurance for one Sydney synagogue had jumped from $35,000 to $150,000. #
   [COMMENT: When the major Parties started abandoning the traditional immigration policy of Australia, the majority of voters opposed it. However, they were told that the newcomers would contribute their work and pay taxes. Nobody told the unsuspecting Aussies that in a few years the taxpayer would be expected to pay for the security of buildings, because a segment of those coming in were at daggers drawn with other groups already here.
   The majority of Australians did not vote after World War II for accepting the various cultures into the country, Those who wanted multiculturalism ought to pay the increased costs that the tensions, well known to scholars, were likely to generate. We know that RC Jesuits were and are loud in their support of non-traditional immigration. Did the Uniting Church and Judaists also support the idea of inviting more migrants from non-traditional sources? If so, let those who campaigned the most pay the costs that seem to have been created.
   Further back, the Near Eastern terrorism included three gangs in the British mandate territory of Palestine between World Wars I and II. The gangs attacked Palestinian Arabs and suchlike, plus British soldiers etc.
   The United Nations (in spite of all its faults) did order Israel to return to its 1967 borders. Instead of complying, Israel, financed largely by the United States and profits from selling armaments to the supposedly pariah state of South Africa, has financed the building of homes and farms on occupied land outside the sanctioned borders.
   On the other hand, the Muslim inhabitants of Palestine have been using suicide bombers to kill civilians in cafes and markets, as well as military personnel.
   Are these things sins - conning people, stealing land, murder, suicide, terrorism ? COMMENT ENDS.]
   [DOCTRINE: 1 - 5 - 11:25 "There shall no man be able to stand before you: for the LORD your God shall lay the fear of you and the dread of you upon all the land that ye shall tread upon, as he hath said unto you." www.biblegateway. com/cgi-bin/ bible?passage= DEUT%2B11%3A24- 25&showfn= on&showxref= on&language= english& version= KJV&x=15&y=4 .
   1 - 5 - 15:6 – "Thou shalt lend to many nations, and thou shalt borrow of no man. Thou shalt have domination over very many nations; and no one shall have dominion over thee." http://bible. OnlineStudy Bible/bible. cgi?word=Deut+ 15%3A6§ion= 1&version=rhe& new=1&oq=&Nav Book=de&NavGo= 15&NavCurrent Chapter=15
   8.12 - … I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them. dept/MSA/quran/ 008.qmt.html #008.012 . DOCTRINE ENDS.] [Aug 23-24, 03]

• Daniel Pipes onto US Institute of Peace despite Muslim protests.
   WASHINGTON: US President George Bush yesterday named controversial scholar Daniel Pipes, 53, to the board of the US Institute of Peace think tank.
   He used a procedure that did not require a Senate confirmation vote, following opposition from Muslim groups and congressional Democrats. Muslim groups have campaigned against Mr Pipes since his nomination in April, arguing he was hostile to them.
   The Institute of Peace, which concentrates on foreign policy, is funded by the US Federal Government. – The Sunday Times, Australia, "Bush skirts Senate on Pipes," Aug 24 2003, p 31
   [COMMENT: It would seem that Mr Pipes' exposures of one culture arise more from his support of a rival similar culture, than for an even-handed democratic pro-civilisation approach. If the US Senate allows him to circumvent them, the US people deserve all the harm that might follow – the voters allow such lazy Senators to be elected. COMMENT ENDS.] [Aug 24, 03]
• Three killed in Shi'ite cleric attack in bid to kill Al-Hakim. - Shi'ites Al-Hakim, Al-Khoei, murdered. Iraq / Irak flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   The Sunday Times online, from the network, "Three killed in Shi'ite cleric attack," www.sundaytimes. common/story_ page/0,7034,705 7910%255E1 702,00.html , By Jamie Tarabay in Baghdad, Aug 25, 2003
   BAGHDAD: Terrorists detonated a bomb outside the house of one of the most important Muslim Shi'ite clerics in Iraq today, killing three guards and injuring 10 others, including family members.
   The bomb, a gas cylinder wired to explode, was placed along the outside wall of the home of Mohammed Saeed al-Hakim who suffered scratches on his neck, according to Abdel-Aziz al-Hakim, a member of Iraq's US-picked Governing Council and leader of what was the armed wing of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq – headquartered in Iran before the war.
   The bomb exploded [during] afternoon prayers in the holy city of Najaf. Iraqi newspapers reported last week that al-Hakim had received threats against his life. He had also been among a group of three top Shi'ite leaders threatened with death by a rival Shi'ite cleric shortly after Saddam Hussein was toppled on April 9.
   A day later, a mob in Najaf hacked to death a Shi'ite cleric who had recently returned from exile and called for reconciliation. Abdul Majid al-Khoei was killed when a meeting called to reconcile rival groups in Najaf turned into a melee at the Shrine of Ali, one of Shi'ite Islam's holiest sites.
   Shi'ites make up about 60 per cent of Iraq's 24 million population. [NOTE: A second attack soon after succeeded in killing al-Hakim. NOTE ENDS.]
• Falling out with friends. AUSTRALIA: "… This week – after Jewish community leaders had expressed their concern directly to him – Opposition leader Simon Crean delivered a blistering speech that overrode his backbenchers and strongly reaffirmed the Labor Party's commitment to Israel.
   In the eyes of some, Crean's speech was a diplomatic illustration of the power of the so-called Jewish lobby – a well-organised and well-funded group that critics say wields disproportionate influence in political affairs.  …
   Despite their relatively small numbers the affluent Jewish community is a solid financial contributor to both main political parties. Many wealthy Jewish businessmen choose to donate to both.
   Shopping centre magnate Frank Lowy last year gave $330,000 to each main party via his private company; billionaire Richard Pratt's company, Pratt Holdings, gave $218,000 to the Coalition and $125,000 to Labor; and property developer Harry Triguboff donated $278,000 to the Coalition, and $107,000 to Labor via his Meriton Apartments.  … – The Australian, by Cameron Stewart, Sep 5 03
• Minister of the fence. "His project has critics on both sides, but the man behind the new barrier that will separate Israelis and Palestinians is unrepentant." ISRAEL / PALESTINE: Colonel Dany Tirza shifts into four-wheel drive, swerves around the water-filled ruts in the mud track and steers up a slope. Though he has an office in Jerusalem at the Israeli Army's Central Command and another in a Defence Ministry building in Tel Aviv, this car is his real HQ [headquarters], and his real workplace is the Israeli countryside along the Green Line, the border between Israel and the land it has occupied since 1967.  … surveys his handiwork, a curtain of concrete stretching across the plain, broken by grey towers.   …
   Beyond the wall a low hill rises, covered with close-set houses – the town of Qalqilya, home to 43,000 Palestinians, at the very western edge of the occupied West Bank. On this side of the wall, the Israeli side, cars rush past on the newly opened north-south Trans-Israel Highway. The spot where we stand is on the outskirts of Kfar Sava, a Tel Aviv suburb.   …
   … the official maps of the Israeli Government don't show the Green Line. … the real border remains to be set.   …
   Tirza, 44, with dark hair beginning to grey, …   …
   Less than two kilometres of open country, he notes, separates Qalquilya from Kfar Sava, and the Palestinian town was the base for the suicide bombing at the door of a Tel Aviv disco in June 2001 in which 21 Israelis died.   …
   … For much of its length, the barrier will be a 70-metre-wide swath of barbed wire, sensors and roads, rather than a concrete wall.   …
   Palestinians say they're being jailed – the barrier will surround Qalqilya, with just one exit to the east, via an Israeli checkpoint. Or perhaps, as an Israeli critic suggests, Israelis are the ones inside the barrier, in a fortress or ghetto of their own making.   …
   The question of what land to keep or give up is Israel's most bitter political issue, …   …
   … a regional council put pressure on the government by building its own fence.   …
   The barrier project has been sharply criticised … also by the Israeli human rights group B'Tselem for restricting Palestinians' rights to movement inside the West Bank, separating farmers from their fields and taking Palestinian land.   …
   … For 36 years, Israel hasn't simply ignored the border, but erased it.  … New Israeli towns have been built close to the Green Line on both sides, creating a chequerboard of Jewish and Palestinian communities.   …
   … Abdulkarim Ayoub Ahmed, a 43-year-old accountant … can no longer drive from the village to his home.  … the fence … map … goes around the village. The paper shows an enclave 2.4km wide at its widest point, with a bottleneck open to the north.  … an army checkpoint would control access to the village.   … the hothouse will be demolished.   …
   … Benny Kaizer, on the other side of the chain-link fence … two Palestinians cut the chain-link fence late one night in May. Each carried an AK-47 rifle. By luck … soldiers arrived … terrorists were killed.   …
   Within Israel, there are two themes to rising criticism of the barrier. The first is that the prime minister is delaying the fence at the cost of Israeli lives.   … The second theme is that Sharon wants the barrier, but in the wrong place. Rightists say he is giving too much away. Leftists say he is trying to annex much of the West Bank.
   Palestinian opposition is sharper and virtually universal.  …
   If the readings are contradictory, says Yaron Ezrahi, an Israeli political theorist, it is because the project is a bundle of contradictory impulses.   … "it reflects the bankruptcy of the Right's idea that the Palestinians can be defeated by force".   …
   Tirza … ["]Terror threatens us. The Palestinians aren't taking action. We must take our own steps. That includes giving order to space." – The Weekend Australian Magazine, "Minister of the fence," by Gershom Gorenberg, pp 18-20, September 13-14 2003
• Woman wins appeal against stoning death. ABUJA, Nigeria, Sep 26 03: Nigeria flag;  
   An Islamic appeals court in northern Nigeria has overturned the conviction of a single mother who had faced death by stoning for adultery.
   A five-judge panel yesterday rejected Amina Lawal's conviction in March 2002, saying she was not given ample opportunity to defend herself.
   Ms Lawal was convicted for having a baby 10 months after a divorce.
   If the sentence had been carried out, the 32-year-old would have been the first woman stoned to death since 12 northern States first began adopting strict Islamic law, or sharia, in 1999.
   In an hour-long ruling, the panel said Ms Lawal was not caught in the act of adultery and was not given enough time to understand the charges against her.
   It also cited procedural errors, including that only one judge was present at her initial conviction, instead of the three required under Islamic law.
   The case had drawn sharp criticism from international rights groups.
   President Olesugun Obasanjo's Government and world leaders had called for Ms Lawal to be spared.
   Last week, Brazil even offered her asylum.
   Few believed the sentence, in which Ms Lawal would have been buried up to her neck in sand and executed by stoning, would ever be carried out.
   Mr Obasanjo had assured the world that there would be no stoning.
   A Christian, he has struggled for four years to deal with Christian-Muslim clashes over sharia in which thousands of people have been killed.
   Sympathy for Ms Lawal had put pressure on his Government to curb Islamic law.
   Francois Cantier, a lawyer with French group Lawyers Without Borders, said: "We think the death penalty for adultery is contrary to the Nigerian Constitution.
   "We think that death by stoning is contrary to international treaties against torture which Nigeria has ratified.
   "We think that death by stoning is degrading human treatment." Mr Cantier advised the defence.
   (Picture: Appeal success: Amina Lawal holds her daughter in court yesterday. REUTERS) – The West Australian, "Woman wins appeal against stoning death," Reuters, p 26, Sep 26, 03
• [United Nations headquarters, murder, second bomb; woman leader dies.]    BAGHDAD, Iraq: After the first huge bomb exploded at the hotel being used as an HQ by the UN and killed the UN leader of the Iraq relief effort and other people, another vehicle bomb exploded near the same hotel, killing the suicide bomber and an Iraqi guard. After a few days the UN decided to move its Iraq leadership to neighbouring Jordan. A woman who had been a diplomat for the Saddam regime, but took up a seat on the US-appointed national council, has died of injuries received in a murderous attack. She is said to be the first on the council to be murdered. [Sep 26, 03]
• US suspecting spies among its own Guantanamo Bay staff.
   The West Australian, "US expands terror prison security probe; Scepticism over any Syria link after arrests," Los Angeles Times, p 26, Sep 26 2003
   WASHINGTON: The United States military is expanding its probe of potential security breaches at the Guantanamo Bay prison camp.  …
   Senior airman Ahmad al-Halabi, 24, is being held in California on espionage charges.  … tried to pass military secrets to Syria, his native country … denied …
   The other … army Capt. Yousef Yee, … allegedly … carrying classified documents … including notes on prisoners … chaplain.
   [COMMENT: Whether this is a "witch-hunt" or genuine discoveries of spying etc., these arrests will add to the feeling of Islamic minorities that they are being persecuted in the "House of War," which make them ripe to be possibly exploited by the "conservative" plus the "militant" religious leaders. Isn't multiculturalism grand! COMMENT ENDS.] [Sep 26 03]
• Inter-faith love leads to murder. AMMAN, Jordan: Dalia, a Muslim young woman hairdresser, was stabbed 12 times in the chest at home in an "honour" killing. October 2003 article.
   CONTRADICTED in July 2004: An "investigation by The Sydney Morning Herald has disclosed that Norma Khouri is a fake, and so is Forbidden Love. […]
   … Khouri's real name is Norma Majid Khouri Michael Al-Bagain Toliopoulos and she lived in Jordan only until she was three years old. She has a US passport and lived from 1973 until 2000 in Chicago. She is married with two children, 13 and 11. She has four American siblings and an estranged mother who are desperate to hear news from her. […]
   Her publisher, Random House, said last night it supported its authors and claims they made. It was mindful that the issue of concealing Khouri's true identity was central to her fleeing Jordan.
   But a sequel, A Matter of Honour, planned for November, must now be under question." – The West Australian, "Haunting memoir of forbidden love our latest literary hoax," pages 1 and 4, Saturday, July 24, 2004. (Inserted on this webpage July 24 2004, 9.58 am WST.)
An ambulance was called, but she was dead on arrival at the hospital. Her "sin" was she had gone on picnics with a Christian army officer in the Jordanian army. When her best friend (female) and business partner went to the family home, the father said "I've cleansed my house, that's what I've done.  … I never had a daughter! Understood?" (p 156)
   Dalia's death never reached the newspapers, and her body was buried in an unmarked grave. But Norma Khouri kept her promise to her friend by writing the book Forbidden Love (©2003 by Norma Khouri, published by Bantam Books, Sydney)
   Jordan is a place of paradox and double standards for men and women. The Bedouin code is always encroaching on its urban streets. Its fierce and primitive desert code is always nagging at men's instincts, reminding them that under the veneer, they are all still Arabs. (p 142)
– based on Australian Reader's Digest, "Forbidden Love; A harrowing true story of love and unforgiving honour in Jordan today," by Norma Khouri, pp 140-156,
CONTRADICTED in July 2004: An "investigation by The Sydney Morning Herald has disclosed that Norma Khouri is a fake, and so is Forbidden Love.
[October 2003]
• Father murders daughter over love affair. BRITAIN: Radio and television news reports the sentencing of a Kurdish father living in Britain for murdering his daughter over a love affair. He asked to be executed, but was sentenced to prison.
   [COMMENT: This was a coincidence with the publication in the October 2003 Australian Reader's Digest of extracts from a book, Forbidden Love, about a (supposed) similar "honour" murder years earlier in Jordan. [A challenge to the authenticity of this book, by "Norma Khouri", was reported on July 24, 2004, and bit by bit generally adopted. In the October 2004 Australian Reader's Digest the admission was made that the book was a fabrication.] However, this sort of attack on women and girls is more universal than is reported. It occurs also in strongly Hindu areas of India, supposedly over bride money.
   Westerners who commit violence against females find these days that they are opposed by the community, and the police have in recent years moved a bit less sluggishly against so-called domestic violence. But in some non-Western societies, the rights of males to molest and overbear females is the belief of the dominant males and their "religious leaders." The real reasons for cowardly attacks on the weaker gender would require sociologists and psychologists to unravel. COMMENT ENDS.] [Oct 1, 03]
• [Female suicide bomber]  Palestine Authority flag; Palestine Authority website  Israel flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 


   The Sunday Times Magazine (Perth, W. Australia), sattlerd@ sundaytimes. By KEVIN TOOLIS, pp 12-15, September 10, 2006. (Incident was on October 4, 2003.)
   AT 2pm on October 4, 2003, 29-year-old Palestinian lawyer Hanadi Jaradat walked into a seaside restaurant in the Israeli port city of Haifa. Co-owned by Jews and Christian Arabs, Maxim stood as a symbol for coexistence. The woman sat down and ordered a chicken kebab. The restaurant was busy. It was a Saturday and the tables were crowded with families.
   After eating her meal she stood up, walked into the middle of the room and stood between the Zer Aviv and the Almog families. Reaching into her left pocket she pressed the safety switch that would arm the suicide-bomb vest she wore beneath her brown jacket and knee-length blue skirt. Two seconds later she pressed the detonator in her right pocket and blew herself and everyone around her to pieces. […]
[Bomb on Oct 4, 03]
• Human rights records of some nations you defend. PERTH, W. Australia: I have read with interest Tony Cooke's columns and their thoughtful public commentary. While I acknowledge his obvious intellect and appreciation of contemporary ideology, for crying out loud, Tony, enough of the US-Australian antipathy. Notwithstanding the qualities mentioned, for all of your philosophical posturing and socialistic meanderings, B. A. Santamaria you are not. Please try to divert your thoughts momentarily from your disdain of all things American and consider the human rights records of some of the nations you defend in your constant diatribes against America and other free societies. In your latest offering (Irony is just what the good doctor ordered, 8/10), you ask whether you are too cynical in your analysis of US-Australia aid programs to Indonesia. The answer lies in the fact that you're asking the question. Give us all a break, Tony, and maybe a bit of balance. If you continually point the finger in one direction your arguments will deteriorate at a rate commensurate with the erosion of your credibility. – The West Australian, Letter from Kevin McDonald, Thornlie, Oct 10, 2003
• Ironic to say Mahathir is moderate. PERTH, W. Australia: HOW ironic it is that Tony Cooke condemns Israel for its "self-definition as victim state" in the same week that another Palestinian bomber kills 19 innocents (among them Arabs as well as Jews). How ironic is his praise for Mahathir Mohamad as "an advocate of moderate Muslim opinion". This is about a leader who has not held back his anti-Israel statements and actions over many years, including banning Israeli sporting teams from entering his country. How ironic it is that The West Australian continues to waste space on this man's unnecessary and ill-informed views. – The West Australian, Letter from Barry Stark, Dianella, [Oct 10, 03]
• Nobel winner urges freedom for dissidents. Saturday 11 October 2003, 19:45 Makka Time, 16:45 GMT:    
   PARIS, France: Nobel Peace Prize winner Shirin Ebadi, an Iranian human rights activist and feminist lawyer, has used her newfound fame to call on her country to release all its prisoners of conscience.
   At a media conference in Paris where she is on a private visit, Ebadi called for all political prisoners in Iran to be released. At a media conference in Paris where she is on a private visit, Ebadi called for all political prisoners in Iran to be released.
   "I call on the Iranian government to respect human rights and I hope in the future things will move positively … What is most urgent is respect for freedom of expression and the release of prisoners of conscience," she said.
   Ebadi, 56, was given the prize "for her efforts for democracy and human rights," particularly for women and children in her country, which has been under Islamic rule since a 1979 revolution, the Nobel Committee said.
   Immediately after the news, Edabi said she was "shocked" at the unexpected honour but believed the prize - which carries a 10 million Swedish crowns ($1.32 million) purse - "will be important for my work for human rights and for citizens in Iran."
   In a pointed gesture, she appeared without the Muslim headscarf Iran demands its women wear in public everywhere, even outside the country.
'Continued struggle'
   She won from a record field of 165 candidates including Pope John Paul II and former Czech President Vaclav Havel. "She sees no contradiction between Islam and fundamental human rights," the head of the committee Ole Danbold Mjoes said in the prize citations.
   "The legal keys that Shia religion has given us enable us to transform and act according to the times," Ebadi wrote in a recent article. The prize will be handed over at an official ceremony in Oslo on 10 December. Ebadi won a separate human rights prize in Norway in 2001, the Rafto Prize.
   "In my country, Iran, there is still a continued struggle for democracy and human rights," she wrote this year. "Iranian people want to reform their political and legal system," she said. "They are protesting against the few people who have power."
   Nobel watchers say that the five-member committee, which comprises three women, probably chose Ebadi as a way of promoting change, rather than rewarding the ailing pope or to Havel for a lifetime of peace work.
   Analysts say the committee has sought to promote moderates in the Muslim world since the 11 September 2001 attacks on the US. After some delay, the Iranian government said it was pleased by the news, but the country's hardline conservatives saw the award as a Western attack on their mode of Islamic rule.
Not impressed
   A conservative Iranian leader, Assad Allah Badamshian, chief of the Islamic Coalition Association, called the honour a "disgrace" and claimed that Iran's arch-foe, the United States, had a hand in giving the prize to a "so-called reformist".
   The Nobel decision has upset others too. Former Polish president and Nobel laureate Lech Walesa said the Norwegian Nobel Committee made a "big mistake" in awarding the 2003 peace prize to the Iranian jurist rather than Pope John Paul II.
   But by winning the Nobel award, Ebadi joins a select group of women. She is only the 11th woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize since it was set up in 1901. (Picture: Shirin Ebadi has demanded freedom of expression in Iran) – Aljazeera.Net, "Nobel winner urges freedom for dissidents," Saturday 11 October 2003, 19:45 Makka Time, 16:45 GMT
   Related items: Iran congratulates Nobel Peace winner. < /NR/exeres/23CF5805-BBB1-438E-A3F7-9662FAA7C2C0.htm > Iran rejects women's equality ruling < /NR/exeres/8B8335E2-1D4E-4DD3-9EAB-A87987393370.htm > – Aljazeera.Net, with "Nobel winner urges freedom for dissidents," 19:45 Makka Time, 16:45 GMT, Saturday, 11 October 2003
   [COMMENT: "… sees no contradiction between Islam and fundamental human rights …" That official must have defective editions of the ancient texts! COMMENT ENDS.] [Oct 11, 03]

• Iran: Nobel Prize Winner Calls For End To Islamic Punishment.
   PARIS, France: 11 October 2003 (RFE/RL) – Nobel Peace Prize winner Shirin Ebadi wants Iran to stop applying Islamic punishments for crimes, including stoning and amputation of limbs, and says the country needs radical reforms.
   In an interview published in today's edition of the French daily "Le Monde," the Iranian lawyer and activist says she hopes her prize will encourage human rights campaigners in Iran.
   She also says Iranians are "profoundly disappointed" by Iran's Islamic Revolution and calls for political, social, economic, and civil-rights reforms. The 56-year-old Ebadi yesterday became the first Muslim woman ever to win the Nobel Peace Prize for her work on behalf of children and women.
   Iranian President Mohammad Khatami's reformist government has congratulated Ebadi, but the country's conservative leaders have criticized the Nobel Committee for awarding its peace prize to the human-rights lawyer. – Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, "Iran: Nobel Prize Winner Calls For End To Islamic Punishment," , (RFE/RL), 11 October 2003
• US soldiers bulldoze farmers' crops.   
   The Independent, Britain, http://news. independent. , By Patrick Cockburn in Dhuluaya, October 12, 2003
   DHULUAYA, Iraq: Americans accused of brutal 'punishment' tactics against villagers, while British are condemned as too soft: US soldiers driving bulldozers, with jazz blaring from loudspeakers, have uprooted ancient groves of date palms as well as orange and lemon trees in central Iraq as part of a new policy of collective punishment of farmers who do not give information about guerrillas attacking US troops.
   The stumps of palm trees, some 70 years old, protrude from the brown earth scoured by the bulldozers beside the road at Dhuluaya, a small town 50 miles north of Baghdad. Local women were yesterday busily bundling together the branches of the uprooted orange and lemon trees and carrying then back to their homes for firewood.
   Nusayef Jassim, one of 32 farmers who saw their fruit trees destroyed, said: "They told us that the resistance fighters hide in our farms, but this is not true. They didn't capture anything. They didn't find any weapons." Other farmers said that US troops had told them, over a loudspeaker in Arabic, that the fruit groves were being bulldozed to punish the farmers for not informing on the resistance which is very active in this Sunni Muslim district.
   "They made a sort of joke against us by playing jazz music while they were cutting down the trees," said one man. Ambushes of US troops have taken place around Dhuluaya. But Sheikh Hussein Ali Saleh al-Jabouri, a member of a delegation that went to the nearby US base to ask for compensation for the loss of the fruit trees, said American officers described what had happened as "a punishment of local people because 'you know who is in the resistance and do not tell us'."
   What the Israelis had done by way of collective punishment of Palestinians was now happening in Iraq, Sheikh Hussein added. The destruction of the fruit trees took place in the second half of last month but, like much which happens in rural Iraq, word of what occurred has only slowly filtered out. The destruction of crops took place along a kilometre-long stretch of road just after it passes over a bridge.
   Farmers say that 50 families lost their livelihoods, but a petition addressed to the coalition forces in Dhuluaya pleading in erratic English for compensation, lists only 32 people. The petition says: "Tens of poor families depend completely on earning their life on these orchards and now they became very poor and have nothing and waiting for hunger and death."
   The children of one woman who owned some fruit trees lay down in front of a bulldozer but were dragged away, according to eyewitnesses who did not want to give their names. They said that one American soldier broke down and cried during the operation.
   When a reporter from the newspaper Iraq Today attempted to take a photograph of the bulldozers at work a soldier grabbed his camera and tried to smash it. The same paper quotes Lt Col Springman, a US commander in the region, as saying: "We asked the farmers several times to stop the attacks, or to tell us who was responsible, but the farmers didn't tell us."
   Informing US troops about the identity of their attackers would be extremely dangerous in Iraqi villages, where most people are related and everyone knows each other. The farmers who lost their fruit trees all belong to the Khazraji tribe and are unlikely to give information about fellow tribesmen if they are, in fact, attacking US troops.
   Asked how much his lost orchard was worth, Nusayef Jassim said in a distraught voice: "It is as if someone cut off my hands and you asked me how much my hands were worth." [Emphasis added]
   [COMMENT: I wonder what ethical system these USA vandals are following? It sure isn't that of the Sermon on the Mount! Could it just be the "eye for the eye" teaching of old Israel / Judah? Won't it just create more people willing to listen to teachings such as to crucify disbelievers? COMMENT ENDS.]
  1 - 12 - 3:16-25: – 16… . This is what the Lord has said, … 19. And YOU must strike down every fortified city and every choice city, and every good tree YOU shall fell, and all the springs of water YOU shall stop up, and every good tract of land YOU shall mar with stones.  … 25 And the cities they went throwing down … and every good tree they would fell … ( www.biblegateway. com/cgi-bin/bible? language=english& version=KJ21& passage= 2Kings+3%3A+ 16-25&x=13&y=6 ).
   4 - 5:33 (or 5:37):- Slay or crucify or cut the hands and feet off the unbelievers; expel them from the land with disgrace, and they shall have a great punishment in the world hereafter. ( dept/MSA/quran/ 005.qmt.html #005.034 )
   5 - 3.39.519: – The Prophet got the date palm trees of the tribe of Bani-An-Nadir burnt and the trees cut down at a place called Al-Buwaira. Hassan bin Thabit said in a poetic verse: "The chiefs of Bani Lu'ai found it easy to watch fire spreading at Al-Buwaira." Volume 3, Book 39, Number 519, Agriculture, dept/MSA/funda mentals/hadith sunnah/bukhari/ 039.sbt.html #003.039.519 (Translation of Sahih Bukhari). DOCTRINE ENDS.] [Oct 12, 03]

• Labor stumbles into another divide AUSTRALIA: [Federal Parliamentary Labor leader] Simon Crean's efforts to keep the Jewish community on side could be derailed by Bob Carr's support for a controversial peace prize. Labor's relations with the Jewish community are once again under strain as the political cycle moves towards an election. – The Australian 13-10-2003 , Ed: 1 - All-round Country , FEATURES Pg: 011 , 995 words , Oct 13, 2003
Malaysia PM Mahathir delivers war cry. "Jews rule the world by proxy." "We need guns and rockets" Standing ovation. [First newsitem Thu Oct 16, 9:35 am.] Malaysia flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   PUTRAJAYA, Malaysia: Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad on Thursday told a summit of Islamic leaders that "Jews rule the world by proxy" and the world's 1.3 billion Muslims should unite, using nonviolent means for a "final victory."
   His speech at the Organization of the Islamic Conference summit, which he was hosting, drew criticism from Jewish leaders, who warned it could spark more violence against Jews.
   Mahathir – known for his outspoken, anti-Western rhetoric – criticized what he described as Jewish domination of the world and Muslim nations' inability to adequately respond to it.  …
 "We need guns and rockets, bombs and warplanes, tanks and warships for our defence," he told the leaders of 57 nations. …
   The United States, Israel, the European Union and Australia all accused Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad of blatant anti-Semitism on Friday, prompting him to fire back a charge of double standards.  …
   (Click at heading for several newsitems, with Judaism's and the rest of the world's opposition, and the surprising number of leaders who supported him.) [Oct 16, 2003, and days following.]
• U.S. Selling Off Iraq-Owned Companies.      Fri Oct 17, 2003 3:17 PM ET:
   BAGHDAD, Iraq - The U.S.-led occupation authority is taking initial steps toward selling off the first of Iraq's (news http://us.rd. News/manual/ *http://search. search/news?p=% 22Iraq%22&c=&n= 20&yn=c&c=news&cs=nw - web sites http://us.rd. News/manual/*http:// bin/search?cs= nw&p=Iraq) scores of state-owned companies to investors, but will stick to small enterprises until a sovereign Iraqi government takes over the job, the American privatization chief said Friday.
   Thomas Foley said the privatizing of Iraq's government-dominated economy will begin with service companies, such as a taxi-limousine service and an architectural design firm.
   "We selected a small group, fewer than 10 SOEs (state-owned enterprises) that are very small and very simple, low-asset businesses to begin initial privatization steps," said Foley, in charge of private-sector development under the Coalition Provisional Authority.
   The U.S. plan for Iraqi privatization is controversial. Some critics interpret Article 47 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, protecting civilians in wartime, as outlawing major alterations in an occupied country's economic system, through its prohibition of annexation of occupied territory.
   Foley told reporters no sales would involve land. "As for selling SOEs, we believe that would be permitted prior to there being a sovereign government," he said.
   The U.S. administration foresees a likely transition to a sovereign Iraqi government by late 2004 after the drafting of a constitution and national elections.
   During 35 years of Baath Party rule here, ended by a U.S.-British invasion force in April, some of Iraq's largest enterprises were nationalized and other major state companies were established. Before the war, some 200 state-owned enterprises employed a half-million Iraqi workers, Foley said.
   The CPA in mid-September completed an assessment of 153 of the 200 companies – excluding military industries, companies under the Oil Ministry and electric commission, and state banks and insurance companies.
   "The assessments were targeted toward determining which of those made sense for privatization and how and when such privatization might be appropriate," said Foley, who heads a New York investment firm, NTC Group.
   Asked for examples of the most valuable enterprises, he cited cement, fertilizer, sulfur-mining, textile and automotive tire companies, among others.
   An overall plan for privatization will be submitted to Iraq's interim Governing Council in the next several weeks, centered on establishment of a privatization agency, Foley said. The majority of privatizations will be carried out by a sovereign government, he said.
   "My guess is that this process will take three to five years," Foley said.
   Some Iraqis have expressed concern that their most promising companies will be bought up by foreign investors. The first, small privatizations are unlikely to attract foreign interest, Foley said.
   He did not say when those smaller companies are likely to be put up for sale, but did say that date is "not close." He described those sales as a kind of test "to understand what sorts of obstacles we may run into."
   –Yahoo! News, AP, "U.S. Selling Off Iraq-Owned Companies," http://story. news?tmpl=story 2&u=ap/iraq_ privatizing , By Charles J. Hanley, AP Special Correspondent, 3:17 PM ET, Fri Oct 17, 03.
   [COMMENT: Well, if I were an Iraqi and/or a Muslim, it would look like looting to me. COMMENT ENDS.] [Oct 17, 2003]

Usama bin Ladin: Threatening America, Britain, Australia and other Western and Muslim nations. 20:24 Makka Time, 17:24 GMT, Saturday 18 October 2003:, "Full text of message to Americans," by Usama bin Ladin, http://english. NR/exeres/8E8E A580-943C-4FBF- 9ABD-21B47 627FECD.htm , 20:24 Makka Time, 17:24 GMT, Saturday 18 October 2003
   For Arabic version, visit: www.aljazeera. net
   MAKKA: Usama bin Ladin has issued a message to the American and other people, broadcast on Saturday on Aljazeera television.
   "Oppression will only go against the oppressors. "This is a message from Usama bin Muhammad bin Ladin to the American people regarding your aggression in Iraq. Peace be upon those who follow the righteous path.
   "Some have the impression that you are a reasonable people. But the majority of you are vulgar and without sound ethics or good manners.   […] you are enslaved by your richest and the most influential among you, especially the Jews, who lead you using the lie of democracy to support the Israelis and their schemes and in complete antagonism towards our religion (Islam).   […]
   "On the other hand, he (Bush) is concealing his own ambitions and the ambitions of the Zionist lobby and their own desire for oil. He is still following the mentality of his ancestors who killed the Native Americans to take their land and wealth.   […]
   "We reserve the right to retaliate at the appropriate time and place against all countries involved, especially the UK, Spain, Australia, Poland, Japan and Italy, not to exclude those Muslim states that took part, especially the Gulf states, and in particular Kuwait, which has become a beachhead for the crusading forces.   * * *  
   "And may our mothers become childless if we leave any of you alive on our soil." [Oct 18 03]
• Islamic nations pledge to fight terrorism, soft-pedal on Iraq, Mideast. (17/10/2003) Malaysia flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   Agence France-Presse, October 17, 2003
   PUTRAJAYA, Malaysia (AFP) The world's Islamic nations pledged to fight terrorism at the end of the biggest Muslim summit since the 2001 attacks on the United States, while toning down resolutions on Iraq and the Middle East.
   More than 30 heads of state and government turned up at the triennial summit of the 57-member Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), which was dominated by a sense of crisis in the Muslim world.
   Two member states, Afghanistan and Iraq, have been invaded by United States-led forces since the last summit in 2000, and the conference heard constant complaints that Muslims around the globe feel oppressed and humiliated.
   On terrorism, the leaders pledged to "contribute to multilateral efforts to counter this scourge," while making the point of including "state terrorism," a term usually used to refer to Israel's military actions.
   The final communique at the end of the two-day summit also rejected "selectivity and duplicity of standards in combating terrorism and all attempts to associate terrorism with a particular religion or culture."
   It called for the signing of a convention to "distinguish between terrorism and the legitimate struggle for the right to self-determination of people living under occupation or foreign domination" – a reference mainly to the Palestinians.
   UN Secretary General Kofi Annan warned the summit of rising hostility between Islam and the West, while the OIC paid tribute to Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf's plea for a new approach to conflict which he called "Enlightened Moderation".
   On Iraq, the leaders dropped plans for a resolution calling for a specific timetable for the withdrawal of US forces in the face of opposition from leaders of the country's interim governing Council.
   Instead, the OIC welcomed the US-sponsored UN Security Council resolution passed Thursday which authorizes a multinational force in Iraq and simply called for moves towards the restoration of Iraq's sovereignty to be accelerated.
   The final communique did, however, maintain a demand for the United Nations to play a central role in the transition.
   The OIC also condemned recent violence in Iraq, including attacks on targets such as the UN headquarters in Baghdad and the Jordanian and Turkish embassies, as "criminal terrorist bombings".
   It called for the prosecution of former officials of Saddam Hussein's regime responsible for crimes such as "genocidal acts" against the Iraqis and others.
   On the Middle East, the summit issued a strong condemnation of Israel, but shyed away from open support for the three-year Palestinian uprising.
   The final communique dedicated a dozen of its 106 articles to condemnation of Israel for occupying Arab lands and its repression of the Palestinians, but neither the communique nor a separate declaration on Palestine mentioned the intifada.
   The major issues on the agenda were overshadowed at the opening of the conference by Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's accusation that Jews ruled the world by proxy, getting others to fight and die for them.
   His remarks caused a firestorm of protest in the western world, but Muslim leaders here rallied to his defence, saying his remarks had been taken out of context.
   Mahathir later defended his comments at a closing news conference, denying that he was anti-Semitic and saying it was "grossly unfair" that Muslims could be criticized but others could not condemn the Jews.
   He said it was unfortunate that his key message to stop all violence, suicide bombings and massive retaliation in the Middle East was not highlighted.
   The summit, which was attended by two kings, two sheikhs, a sultan, a prince, 20 presidents and seven prime ministers, also featured a surprise address by Russian President Valdimir Putin.
   He said Russia and the Islamic countries could have a "mutually advantageous cooperation", pointing out that both wanted a central United Nations role for settling international problems – an apparent reference to their joint opposition to the US-led war on Iraq. – Agence France-Presse, "Islamic nations pledge to fight terrorism, soft-pedal on Iraq, Mideast," [Oct 17, 03]
• Your 24 search results for "Mahathir +speech"
   Malaysia defends speech on Jews; < > Malaysia plays down PM Mahathir Mohamad's speech to Muslim leaders, condemned for its comments on Jews. ‹‹ 90% relevance | 17/10/2003 | similar stories < /cgi-bin/search/ >
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   Malaysia's Mahathir attacks West; < > The Malaysian leader Mohammad Mahathir accuses the West of cultural imperialism in a fiery speech. ‹‹ 87% relevance | 19/06/2003 | similar stories < /cgi-bin/search/ >
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   Militant crackdown saved Malaysia - PM; < < Mahathir Mohamad says detentions under a controversial security act prevented attempts to overthrow his government. ‹‹ 83% relevance | 20/09/2002 | similar stories < /cgi-bin/search/ >
   Malaysian budget boost for business; < > Local firms receive a parting gift from Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad in what will probably be his last budget before he retires. ‹‹ 84% relevance | 20/09/2002 | similar stories < /cgi-bin/search/ >
   Malaysia in suspense over prime minister; < > Speculation mounts in Malaysia about a possible successor to Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. ‹‹ 84% relevance | 24/06/2002 | similar stories < /cgi-bin/search/ >
   End of Road for Mahathir? < > Malaysian newspapers react to Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's surprise resignation, which he cancelled one hour later. ‹‹ 84% relevance | 24/06/2002 | similar stories < /cgi-bin/search/ >
   Mahathir reverses resignation; < > Opposition parties in Malaysia accuse Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad of manipulation, after an extraordinary hour of political drama. ‹‹ 84% relevance | 22/06/2002 | similar stories < /cgi-bin/search/ >
   Mahathir laments state of Muslims; < > In a speech to mark the end of Ramadan, Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad says Muslims allow themselves to be oppressed. ‹‹ 86% relevance | 15/12/2001 | similar stories < /cgi-bin/search/ > – BBC, Search results: < >, on Oct 18, 2003
• Top cleric 'stopped' terror plot.  
   MELBOURNE, Oct 18-19, 03: Australia's leading radical Islamic cleric has revealed he was told of a planned terrorist attack in Australia only months before the Sydney Olympic Games.
   Sheik Mohammed Omran, the Melbourne-based leader of the fundamentalist Ahl Sunnah wal Jama'ah Association, claims he advised against a plot to bomb targets in Australia in 2000 and threatened to go to the police.
   And a separate source has supported Sheik Omran's extraordinary revelation, saying a letter sent to Indonesian terrorist figure Abu Bakar Bashir prominently quoted the Melbourne cleric's view that bombings should not be carried out on Australian soil.
   In a series of exclusive interviews with The Weekend Australian, Sheik Omran said he was approached in 2000 by identical twins Abdul Rahman Ayub, and Abdul Rahim Ayub, whom authorities now believe ran the Australian arm of the terrorist group responsible for the Bali bombing, Jemaah Islamiah.   …
   "Hussein" was planning to carry out terror attacks. The twins … sought guidance from the sheik.  … "I said … I am going to stop him. …"
   Sheik Omran claims he later told authorities of the Hussein plan.
     … Sheik Omran was recently named in Spanish court documents as having links with the suspected leader of al-Qa'ida in Span, Abu Dahdah – claims which the sheik has denied. – The Weekend Australian, "Top cleric 'stopped' terror plot," by Cameron Stewart and Colleen Egan, p 1, October 18-19 2003
• Sheik in a fighting area cannot be overruled by a sheik in a country that at present is not in a "fighting area," they say.   
   AUSTRALIA, Oct 18-19, 03: A thin line of fundamentalist leaders may be all that can really prevent Islamist terrorism in Australia.  …
   In other words, Omran [49 years old], Australia's most influential conservative Islamic scholar, is saying that he helped save the country from a terrorist attack. […]
   Omran … also goes by the name of Abu Ayman (meaning father of Ayman", one of his sons).
   … the belief system in JI and al-Qa'ida dictates that a sheik in a peaceful country, such as Australia, cannot overrule one in a region of fighting. – The Weekend Australian, "A word from the wise," by Cameron Stewart and Colleen Egan, pp 22-23, October 18-19 2003
• Why am I not reassured? AUSTRALIA: Letter to Editor: Well done for your reporting that Sheik Omran in 2000 used his spiritual authority and threatened a would-be extremist who wanted to bomb in Australia (TWA 18/10). Why am I not reassured by this revelation by a "conservative" Muslim leader? Isn't it true that the going rate for visas has been revealed as $10,000 per head? Can your researchers tell me if any Nazi, Fascist, or Bushido terrorist attacks took place on Australian soil during World War II. What fundamental has changed since then? – "Why am I not reassured?," Letter to Editor of The Australian, sent Oct 19 03
• US general sorry for Islam remarks., By Odai Sirri, 5:34 Makka Time, 2:34 GMT, Sunday 19 October 2003.
   MAKKA: A senior Pentagon intelligence official who has called the US military a Christian army and drawn fire over remarks about Muslims has apologised for his comments - but refused to withdraw them.
   Army Lieutenant General William Boykin, an evangelical Christian, has given numerous controversial speeches, but has been forced to apologise "to those who have been offended" by his statements.
   In his speeches, he has referred to Allah (the Islamic term for God) as "an idol" and Muslim fighters as satanically inspired.
   "I am neither a zealot nor an extremist, only a soldier who has an abiding faith," said Boykin in a statement.
   "I do believe that radical extremists have tried to use Islam as a cause for attacks on America. As I have stated before, they are not true followers of Islam."
   [COMMENT: Another "expert" on the Quran, Hadith, and Shariah, I presume! COMMENT ENDS.]

   Reported by the Los Angeles Times and broadcast by NBC News, videotapes show Boykin delivering controversial statements while wearing his army uniform at various Christian functions.   …
   "We in the army of God, in the house of God, kingdom of God, have been raised for such a time as this," he said.
   He has also said that President Bush was appointed by God. "He (Bush) is in the White House because God put him there."   …
   [COMMENT: God? Cheating at the elections, more likely! COMMENT ENDS.] [Oct 19, 03]

!!!: $1m legal bills because 'refugee' said council house not good enough! Rip-off 1. Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   BRITAIN: Britain's top judge last week attacked the asylum gravy train for allowing a family of Lithuanian refugees to cost the taxpayer £500,000 in legal bills.
   Lord Chief Justice Lord Woolf hit out after totting up the "truly horrendous" cost of the family's latest failed action – demanding better free housing from their council.
   He dismissed their appeal … and slammed the … £200,000 cost to the public of the case … warning … Legal Services Commission which backed the action with public money.
   The judge described the bill as "totally out of proportion" to any compensation the Lithuanians might have received if they had won.   … three QCs, six junior barristers and four separate teams of solicitors, was brought by Russian-born Vladimiras and Ala Anufrijeva.
   … to Britain … 1998 … human rights had been infringed … appeal … eight and a half days …
   [Picture: GROWING COSTS: A woman answering to the name of Ala Anufrijeva in Southwark]
   –The International Express (Britain), West Australian edition; "Asylum cases are ripping us all off; Rip-off 1." p 5, Tuesday October 21, 2003
• Extremist's wife, family, live in tax-funded $1m house, get $2000 pw. Rip-off 2. BRITAIN: Taxpayers face a bill of up to £2million to kick extreme cleric Abu Hamza out of Britain.
   It was also revealed last week that the fundamentalist Muslim preacher will be allowed to remain in the UK for at least another six months. And he could spend as long as 10 years fighting his case.
   Lawyers expect Hamza, who has caused outrage by praising the September 11 hijackers, to use every legal trick in the book to try to stay in the country after Home Secretary David Blunkett decided to revoke his British citizenship and deport him.
   The fiery cleric has already picked up around £100,000 in state benefits since he came to Britain in 1980. And although his payments have now been stopped, his wife and eight children receive a £1000-a-week handout and still live in a £500,000 five-bedroom house funded by the taxpayer.
   Hamza, who faced deportation as a security threat after Mr Blunkett ruled that his continuing presence in Britain was seriously prejudicial to the country's vital interests, will not have his appeal against loss of citizenship heard until April.
   Delays were caused by his failure to win legal aid. But even if he loses the appeal, lawyers have suggested that he could spend another 10 years fighting the case through the courts in Britain and Europe, racking up costs for the Government's lawyers that could eventually top £2million.
   Furious MPs have demanded to know why it was taking so long even to bring his appeal before a Special Immigration Appeal Tribunal in London.
   Andrew Dismore, Labour MP for Hendon, accused Hamza of using delaying tactics.
   "He wants to use every legal trick in the book to retain is citizenship of a country that he seems to despise so much," he said.
   [Picture: OUTRAGE: Hamza could spend 10 years fighting the case through the courts]
   – International Express, "Extremist still in UK; Rip-off 2." p 5, Tuesday October 21, 2003
   [COMMENT: Is it any wonder that people from macho backgrounds despise a country that has so paralysed itself it cannot distinguish friend from foe? And that religions deserve to be able to import their clerics, instead of producing home-grown ones? And that seems to imagine that the falling-over-backwards method wins friends and influences people! And whose elite act as if the Welfare State was meant for people other than the children of the soil! Comment dated 11 Dec 03. COMMENT ENDS.] Article: October 21, 2003

• Handover ceremony can't be in church – not ethnic enough.
   BRITAIN: A centuries-old ceremony in a rural parish church is set to be axed – in case it offends ethnic minorities.
   Each year the mayor of Bollington, a quintessential English town deep in the Cheshire countryside, hands over the chains of office to a successor in a civic celebration at a Christian place of worship.
   But the next service could be the last in a church after politically correct calls to shift the ceremony to a non-religious venue.
   Despite no complaints from any ethnic group … deputy mayor Shirley Socket says … more "inclusive."
   … town … reacted furiously … called for the tradition to be preserved.
   … Liberal Democrat councillor Mrs Socket, 47, … rip up rules …
   … mayor John Kershaw seemed to back his deputy …
   – International Express, "Centuries-old village service scrapped… for not being ethnic," by Paul Broster, p 11, Tuesday October 21, 2003
• US hampering Arab progress: report. Post twin towers actions hinder development.
   AMMAN, Jordan, Oct 21 03: The Bush administration is hindering progress in the Arab world, a team of Arab intellectuals contend in a new report released in Jordan.
   They cite the tightening of visa restrictions … Thirty per cent fewer Arabs studied in the US last year than three years earlier, according to the Arab Human Development report.  [A total of 13 paragraphs.] – The West Australian, Associated Press, Oct 21 03
   [COMMENT: This is the classic "persecution complex" build-up preceding invasion. The European traders and missionaries used to sail back home from the 15th and 16th centuries onwards complaining of their treatment at the hands of the local rulers and people in the independent nations they traded with. Their raiding and trading voyages were dressed up in religious banners, and with the persecution and cruelties stories, made fertile ground for recruiting soldiers and sailors!
   The Arab intellectuals quoted ought to ask themselves why they believe that their students and such people need visas to study overseas. Have they ever thought that in the days of the Baghdad Caliphate people used to come there and to Spain to study? Surely any "cross-fertilisation" of ideas that helps intellectual life could be carried out these days by e-mail, mail, internet sites, occasional conferences, the mass media, etc.
   If the whole world thinks that all wisdom is with the West, why is the West so hated in many quarters? COMMENT ENDS] [Article: Oct 21, 03]

Here's Lucy, caving in, taking flight. Australia flag; 
   The Sydney Morning Herald, http://smh. 2003/10/24/ 10669 74313 719.html , By Alan Ramsey, October 25, 2003
   SYDNEY (NSW) Australia: Dr Hanan Mikhail Ashrawi is a woman, a professor of English, an international human rights activist, and a politician. A year ago she was chosen, unanimously, to receive the 2003 Sydney Peace Prize. The Premier, Bob Carr, will present Ashrawi with her award at State Parliament in 12 days. The first four recipients of the annual prize were honoured at functions in the Great Hall of Sydney University. They included South Africa's Archbishop Desmond Tutu (1999), East Timor's President Xanana Gusmao (2000) and Australia's Sir William Deane (2001). However, for Ashrawi, the Great Hall is out of bounds.
   This is not because Ashrawi is either a woman, an academic or a political activist. It is because she is a Palestinian. That is enough to ensure a virulent campaign of distortion and ridicule by Jewish critics to brutalise her image and try to have Carr renege on Ashrawi's presentation and the award taken from her. So far Carr has refused to buckle.  Not so Sydney University.
   Earlier this year the university's chancellor, Justice Kim Santow of the NSW Supreme Court, made it known to Professor Stuart Rees, director of the Sydney Peace Foundation, and to Kathryn Greiner, the foundation's chairwoman at the time, that the Great Hall would be closed to Ashrawi. Rees and an academic colleague, Ken McNabb, took the matter to Sydney's vice-chancellor, Gavin Brown. In what was called a "difficult and shameful" meeting, Brown confirmed the decision. The campaign now is about maximum political pressure for other corporate and civic sponsors to abandon Ashrawi and intimidate Carr.
• Wolfowitz Unhurt In Baghdad Attack.
   BAGHDAD, Iraq capital: Anti-American forces struck at the nerve center of the U.S. occupation on Sunday, battering the Al Rasheed Hotel with a rocket barrage that killed one U.S. soldier, wounded 15 other people and sent scores of American officials fleeing their beds for safety. The dead American was a colonel. ( Sun Oct 26 03
• Crucifix set for removal from Italian Schools. Italy flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   ROME: ABC radio reports today that an Italian court has ordered the crucifix removed from a school in Italy, on the grounds of separation of Church and State.
   The court case was initiated by a Muslim. There are a million Muslims in Italy. He was reported as saying his motive was not on religious grounds, but because his child was entitled to a school where the principles of the separation of Church and State were practised.
   The Concordat in the Mussolini years had been amended by a left-wing government in more recent years. – Australian Broadcasting Corporation, News Radio, October 27 2003
   [COMMENT: Evidently that man, and the court, don't believe in the adage "When in Rome do as the Romans do." Do some research comparing the number of Islamic houses of worship (mosques) in Italy with the number of Christian churches and Jewish synagogues and other religions' places of worship in Saudi Arabia, and Syria, for example. COMMENT ENDS.]

• Ramadan starts on Monday October 27 2003. The Muslim special month of Ramadan starts. They call it a holy month. [Oct 27, 03]
• Red Cross attacked by suicide bomb, great loss of life, Iraqi police stations hit.
   BAGHDAD: An ambulance was used to deliver a suicide bomber and his deadly cargo near the Red Cross headquarters in Baghdad. Four Iraqi police stations were also attacked. A would-be bomber was arrested, with a foreign passport. [Oct 27, 03]
• Aid workers killed in clashes in Sudan. Sudan / Soudan flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   Catholic World News, "Aid workers killed in clashes in Sudan," , Oct 28, 2003
   KHARTOUM, Oct. 28 ( Nine humanitarian workers have been killed and 14 other injured in clashes between warring tribes in western Sudan The nine victims – Sudanese workers for an American aid agency – were riding in a convoy of trucks carrying aid from the World Food Program, destined for displaced families in the remote Darfur region, in which there has been heavy fighting between militia forces loyal to the Khartoum government and rebel groups.   …
   Recent tribal clashes in the region have killed more than 100 people and displaced many thousands more. Darfur borders Chad and is inhabited by about 80 tribes and ethnic groups – divided between nomads of Arab origin and farmers of African origin. The situation worsened earlier this year when the Sudan Liberation Army, a Darfur group demanding self-determination for the region, attacked Sudanese government troops.
   (The Sudan Liberation Army is entirely separate from the Sudanese People's Liberation Army, a larger rebel group based in the south of the country.) Last month, the government and the Darfur rebel group agreed to a 45-day ceasefire. But fighting has continued between militia groups in the region. … [Oct 28, 03]
   [COMMENT: Ah,"tribal" fighting; or between "nomads" and "farmers"; or between "brown" and "black"; or between "Islamists" and "animists/Christians". Ramadan began in many countries on October 27. Well, well! It would never do to draw the obvious conclusion! COMMENT ENDS.]

• School attacked in city of Faluja. IRAQ: A car bomb was parked outside a school at Faluja, and was detonated today, killing several. It was about 100 metres from a police station. (This is the holy month of Ramadan) Wed Oct 29, 03
• Mayor murdered playing dominoes. IRAQ: A mayor of a city was murdered, playing dominoes, in recent days, it was reported on Oct 29 03
• Australian Embassy Deals With Concerns About Religious Vilification Case.
   CNS News, , By Patrick Goodenough, Pacific Rim Bureau Chief, October 29, 2003
   WASHINGTON and MELBOURNE: Pacific Rim Bureau ( - The Australian Embassy in Washington has been flooded with messages from Americans concerned to learn that two Christian pastors in Australia are facing accusations, brought under new hate laws, of vilifying Islam.
   A significant number of e-mails and phone calls have been received about the case, embassy spokesman Matt Francis said Wednesday.
   Danny Nalliah and Daniel Scot are appearing before a tribunal in the state of Victoria, facing complaints of inciting hatred against Muslims during a seminar organized last year by Nalliah's evangelical organization, Catch the Fire Ministries.
   Scot, a Pakistan-born Christian scholar of Islam, was the speaker, and he addressed the predominantly Christian audience on various aspects of Islam.
   Speaking from Washington, Francis said many of those contacting the embassy were worried that the Christians could face a jail sentence, while some felt the case should not be being heard at all.
   The embassy was clarifying that the case was a civil one, being heard in a state tribunal rather than a court, and that the respondents do not face the possibility of a prison term.
   In Melbourne, the judge hearing the complaint in the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT), Michael Higgins, made the same point during Wednesday's sitting, saying he had received a call from the Department of Foreign Affairs over the concerns.
   The case is the first to be heard under Victoria's Racial and Religious Tolerance Act, a law brought in by the state's Labor government - not the federal government - despite strong misgivings from some religious groups and other critics.
   The confusion evidently arose because the Racial and Religious Tolerance Act provides for two types of offense: "religious vilification" and "serious religious vilification."
   If a complaint of "religious vilification" is proved, the judge may order that the respondent apologize, pay compensation or take other steps. This is the complaint being faced by Catch the Fire.
   The other offense, "serious religious vilification," would require the incitement of hatred to have been intentional and to have included threats of physical harm. The law provides for fines and up to six months' imprisonment in such cases.
   Three Muslims who attended last year's seminar took offense and complained to the Islamic Council of Victoria, which took the case to a state "equal opportunities" commission.
   Catch the Fire then denied the vilification claims, saying the seminar had merely informed Christians about Islam and its teachings as set out in the Quran and other religious texts.
   Attempts to resolve the dispute through conciliation failed, and it was then referred to the VCAT, where the two sides and their legal representatives have been making their cases in recent days.
   Francis said the embassy was making it clear Australia is a country that cherishes and upholds freedom of speech and religion.
   "We have criminal law and civil law. This is being treated as a civil case," Francis said. "This relates to a tribunal that holds conciliation and mediation on areas of civil law.
   "People are expressing their concerns, but perhaps not with a full understanding of how this tribunal works, the relevant legislation and the processes that apply," Francis added.
   Some Christian human rights groups have been urging Christians to pray for Nalliah and Scot, and some messages being circulated say they could go to jail.
   On its Internet website, Catch the Fire has posted an item clarifying the penalties provided for under the Racial and Religious Tolerance Act.
   Higgins, the presiding judge, said Wednesday that while the law does provide for up to six months' imprisonment, that did not apply in this case.
   In its written rebuttal to the Muslims' complaints, Catch the Fire has denied that the information provided during the seminar incited hatred.
   "It cannot be regarded as controversial that there are passages in the Quran…[and other key religious texts] which could and do incite believers in Islam to violence and hatred of non-Muslims. These passages are well known and widely cited by terrorist groups," it said.
   "Exposing the roots of this problem within Islam is not the same thing as inciting hatred. Since Christians are one of the named targets of jihad fighting in the Quran, they have a right and a duty to be well informed about this aspect of Islam."
   Higgins on Wednesday told the hearing that when he first read the transcript of the seminar, he thought parts of it might have violated the Racial and Religious Vilification Act. But as he read on and viewed the seminar in its totality, that view began to wane, he said.
   Scot, the seminar speaker, fled Pakistan with his wife in 1987 after facing accusations under Pakistan's controversial blasphemy laws.
   Nalliah, a Sri Lankan-born Australian national, worked with the underground Christian church in Saudi Arabia in 1995-97.
   In an earlier interview, Nalliah said he later held meetings with members of the U.S. Congress during the process leading up to passage of the 1998 International Religious Freedom Act.
   The case is due to continue on Friday.
   See Earlier Story: Muslim-Christian Clash Looms Over Islamic Teachings (May 30, 2002)
   Send a Letter to the Editor about this article. [Oct 29, 03]
• The Vatican's New Realism about Islam  Vatican City / Papal flag;  

The Vatican's New Realism about Islam , www.frontpage ReadArticle.asp ?ID=10582 , By Robert Spencer, October 31, 2003
   ROME: The semi-official Jesuit magazine La Civiltà Cattolica has done nothing less than shock the world by publishing an absolutely scathing criticism of the mistreatment that Christians suffer in Islamic societies. Why so shocking? It's a sharp break with Pope John Paul II's long-standing policy toward Islam, which some have characterized as "dialogue to the point of extremism." Nothing is published in La Civiltà Cattolica without the approval of the Vatican Secretary of State – so this blistering article presumably corresponds to the views of some very high placed Vatican officials, if not the ailing Pope himself.
   The Civiltà Cattolica piece represents the first indication that any Catholic Church officials recognize the dimensions of the religious conflict that jihadists are waging against Christians and others around the world. Up to now the signals have all been in the other direction: the Pope has been such a relentless proponent of dialogue with Islam that Rome's criticism of the persecution of Christians in Muslim countries has been muted. And in a paroxysm of enthusiasm for peace and brotherhood, he actually kissed the Qur'an on May 14, 1999, during an audience with several Muslim officials from Iraq and the late Chaldean Catholic Patriarch, Raphael I Bidawid. Aghast attendees preserved the moment in pictures, which now can be found on numerous websites - mostly of the tinfoil-hat variety, which use the photos to support their claims that the Pope has no legitimate claim to lead the Church and may even be the Anti-Christ.
   Certainly the Pope's Qur'an kiss was a moment that would have appalled the saints and martyrs who encountered in Islam a relentless and implacable enemy over many centuries of the Church's life. But perhaps those great souls were mollified by this new Civiltà Cattolica article, which is just the opposite of naïve and appeasement-minded irenicism. The article brushes aside decades of misleading historical revisionism about the Muslim conquests, daring to point out that "in all the places where Islam imposed itself by military force, which has few historical parallels for its rapidity and breadth, Christianity, which had been extraordinarily vigorous and rooted for centuries, practically disappeared or was reduced to tiny islands in an endless Islamic sea."
   Civiltà Cattolica also counters the dozens of misleadingly incomplete analyses of jihad that Muslim advocacy groups have used to befuddle the public over the last few years. Jihad, it points out, "has two meanings, both of which are equally essential and must not be dissociated, as if one could exist without the other. In its primary meaning, jihad indicates the 'effort' that the Muslim must undertake to be faithful to the precepts of the Koran and so improve his 'submission' (islam) to Allah; in the second, it indicates the 'effort' that the Muslim must undertake to 'fight in the way of Allah,' which means fighting against the infidels and spreading Islam throughout the world. Jihad is a precept of the highest importance, so much so that it is sometimes counted among the fundamental precepts of Islam, as its sixth 'pillar.' " The only meaning of jihad you will get from American Muslim spokesmen is the first. Is there some reason why they don't want you to know that radicals are acting on the second all over the world today?
   Contrary to another prevailing myth, that Christian-Muslim enmity began with the Christian Crusades, the article states: "All of Islamic history is dominated by the idea of the conquest of the Christian lands of Western Europe and of the Eastern Roman Empire, whose capital was Constantinople." Warfare was initiated by the Muslim armies that swept into Syria and other Christian areas of the Middle East within just a few years of the death of Muhammad in 632. The first Crusade wasn't called until 1095.
   "In reality," says Civiltà Cattolica, "for almost a thousand years Europe was under constant threat from Islam, which twice put its survival in serious danger." Now, in its radical, terrorist form, it is doing so again – but up until now no one at the Vatican, and precious few elsewhere, have taken much notice.
   The article also speaks forthrightly about the traditional Islamic doctrines that radical Muslims exploit in order to subjugate non-Muslims. Hindus, Buddhists, and others, classified as "idolaters" because they are not listed as "People of the Book" (that is, people with a revealed scripture) in the Qur'an, are given a harsh choice: "convert to Islam, or be killed." Jews, Christians, and other "People of the Book," however, have a third choice: "Muslims must 'fight them until their members pay tribute, one by one, humiliated' (Koran, Sura 9:29)." This is the foundation of dhimmitude, the inferior status that traditional Islamic law mandates for Christians and Jews in Islamic society, ensuring that they feel themselves "humiliated" in myriad ways.
   What about Islamic tolerance? Another myth. "According to Muslim law," Civiltà Cattolica notes correctly (and courageously), "Christians, Jews, and the followers of other religions assimilated to Christianity and Judaism (the 'Sabeans') who live in a Muslim state belong to an inferior social order, in spite of their eventually belonging to the same race, language, and descent… . The 'people of the Book' (Ahl al-Kitab) becomes the 'protected people' (Ahl al-dhimma). In exchange for this 'protection,' the 'people of the Book' must pay a tax (jizya) to the Islamic state." Dhimmis could avoid this tax by converting to Islam, but often that way was blocked as well: "Muslims, especially in the early centuries, did not look favorably upon such conversions, because they represented a grave loss to the treasury, which flourished in direct proportion to the number of the dhimmi, who paid both the personal tax and the land tax."
   The tax was accompanied by numerous humiliating regulations. "As for the freedom of worship, the dhimmi are prohibited only from external manifestations of worship, such as the ringing of bells, processions with the cross, solemn funerals, and the public sale of religious objects or other articles prohibited for Muslims… . The dhimmi may maintain or repair the churches or synagogues they already have, but, unless there is a treaty permitting them to own land, they may not build new places of worship, because to do this they would need to occupy Muslim land, which can never be ceded to anyone, having become, through Muslim conquest, land 'sacred' to Allah."
   And if a dhimmi rejected this "protection"? "According to the gravity of each case, the penalty could be the confiscation of goods, reduction to slavery, or death - unless the person who had committed the crimes converted to Islam. In that case, all penalties were waived." How tolerant.
   Although the laws of dhimmitude are not in force today except where the Sharia is the law of the land, Civiltà Cattolica correctly notes that they remain as cultural hangovers, making for discrimination, harassment, and sometimes even persecution of Christians even in ostensibly secular or semi-secular lands such as Egypt, Pakistan, and Syria. Moreover, the institutionalized oppression and inequality of dhimmitude, as I explain in my book Onward Muslim Soldiers, is still part of the Sharia that radical Muslims are trying to impose everywhere. "Radical Islam," says Civiltà Cattolica, "which proposes that shari'a law be instituted in every Islamic state, is gaining ground in many Muslim countries, in which groups of Christians are also present. It is evident that the institution of shari'a would render the lives of Christians rather difficult, and their very existence would be constantly in danger. This is the cause of the mass emigration of Christians from Islamic countries to Western countries: Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia." The article also details the sufferings, and sometimes the cold-blooded murder, of Christians today in Pakistan, Sudan, and elsewhere - by Muslims who saw their actions as just by virtue of the complex of dhimmi laws.
   One of the most disheartening aspects of the post-9/11 world has been the general unwillingness to acknowledge the true nature of the conflict. Donald Rumsfeld just drew flack when he recently remarked: "We are in a war of ideas, as well as a global war on terror." But radical Muslims are waging a war of ideas, on behalf of their vision of a society constituted according to Islamic law. If the West is unable to counter this vision successfully with ideas of its own, no amount of daisy cutters and high-tech weaponry will be able to forestall its ultimate defeat. A key first step to fighting and winning a war of ideas is having the courage to point out the deficiencies of the competing ideas. Clearly someone at the Vatican has gone from kissing the Qur'an to reading it, and has at last taken this step.
Robert Spencer is the director of Jihad Watch and the author of Onward Muslim Soldiers: How Jihad Still Threatens America and the West (new from Regnery Publishing), and Islam Unveiled: Disturbing Questions About the World's Fastest Growing Faith (Encounter Books)..
   He also wrote The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades), two other books, seven monographs, and hundreds of articles about jihad and Islamic terrorism. He is also an Adjunct Fellow with the Free Congress Foundation.
   [GUIDELINE: Check a Saudi Arabian schoolbook by clicking GUIDELINE ENDS.]
   LINK: La Civiltà Cattolica www.lacivilta .ENDS] (Search engine, to WWW 12 Apr 06) [Oct 31, 03]

• [Slavery is a part of Islam and of jihad, says curriculum chief; this is taught also in USA etc.]    
   The Saudi Institute (Freedom In Knowledge), "Principal Author of Saudi Curriculums Advocates Slavery," www.saudi index.php? option=content& task=view&id=138 , By Saudi Institute Staff, Friday, 07 November 2003
   WASHINGTON DC - The main author of the Saudi religious curriculum expressed his unequivocal support for the legalization of slavery in one of his lectures recorded on a cassette and obtained by the Saudi Institute.
Sheikh Saleh Al-Fawzan Shaikh Saleh
Al-Fawzan (Photo: Saudi Institute)
Leading government cleric Sheikh Saleh Al-Fawzan is the author of the religious books currently used to teach 5 million Saudi students, both within the [kingdom] and in Saudi schools aboard [? abroad] - including those in the Washington, D.C. metro area.
   "Slavery is a part of Islam," he says in the tape, adding: "Slavery is part of jihad, and jihad will remain as long there is Islam."
   Government spokesman Adel Al-Jubeir and other officials have repeatedly claimed religious curriculums are being reformed, but Al-Fawzan's books continued to be used according to the minister of education's statements published by Al-Watan daily September 14th, 2003.
   Al-Fawzan is member of the Senior Council of Clerics, Saudi Arabia's highest religious body, a member of the Council of Religious Edicts and Research, the Imam of Prince Mitaeb Mosque in Riyadh, and a professor at Imam Mohamed Bin Saud Islamic University, the main Wahhabi center of learning in the country.
   Al-Fawzan refuted the mainstream Muslim interpretation that Islam worked to abolish slavery by introducing equality between the races.
   "They are ignorant, not scholars," he said of people who express such opinions. "They are merely writers. Whoever says such things is an infidel."
   Al-Fawzan's most famous book, "Al-Tawheed - Monotheism", is taught to Saudi high school students. In it, he says that most Muslims are polytheists, and their blood and money are therefore free for the taking by "true Muslims."
   Among Al-Fawzan's other controversial beliefs is the right to ban the marriage of Arab women to non-Arab Muslims, according to his book "Al-Mulkhas Al-Fiqhee" ("Digest of Law").
   He has also issued a fatwa forbidden [? forbidding] the watching of TV.
   Al-Fwazan is also is a leading opponent of those who seek to introduce change to the Saudi school curriculum.
   He also claimed that elections and demonstrations are western imitations.
   According to Saudi liberal writer and scholar Sheikh Hassan Al-Maliki, Al-Fawzan threatened him with beheading if he continued in his criticism of the extremist Wahhabi interpretation of Islam.
   Al-Maliki, who worked for the ministry of education, was fired after he wrote a 50- page paper criticizing Al-Fawzan's book "Al-Tawheed". [Emphasis added]
   [COMMENT: Well! Slavery, other Muslims' blood and money free to take (if "polytheists"), keeping the Arab race pure - how much longer before these teachers move into modern times? COMMENT ENDS.]
   [DOCTRINE: 033.050 - O Prophet! Lo! We have made lawful unto thee thy wives unto whom thou hast paid their dowries, and those whom thy right hand possesseth of those whom Allah hath given thee as spoils of war … dept/MSA/quran/ 033.qmt.html #033.050 .
   033.055 - There is no blame (on these ladies if they appear) before their fathers or their sons, their brothers, or their brother's sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the (slaves) whom their right hands possess. And, (ladies), fear Allah; for Allah is Witness to all things. dept/MSA/quran/ 033.qmt.html #033.055 . DOCTRINE ENDS.] [Nov 7, 03]

• [Muslims are murdered in capital city housing estate.]   
   RIYADH, ARABIA: Another attack on Muslims occurred in Arabia. Foreign people largely of Arab language and Muslim religion were killed by a car bomb attack on a housing enclave in Arabia's capital city, Riyadh.
   The terrorists shot their way into the guarded 200-villa Muhaya complex at midnight, disguised as Saudi security forces.
   They detonated at least one car packed with explosives. The calamity killed at least 11 people including four children, and wounded at least 122.
  Most residents were families of middle-class professionals from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and the Palestinian territories.
   Without any evidence, authorities declared the attack was organised by Al-Qaida. [This is still the holy month of Ramadan.]
   – based on The West Australian, "Al-Qaida bombs Saudi homes," p 1 and p 7, Reuters, Mon Nov 10, 2003.
   Television ABC news Nov 10, 17 dead. [Nov 10, 03]
• Italian police-soldiers lose 32 in vehicle-bomb attack.      
   IRAQ: A vehicle bomb penetrated the area where a multi-storey accommodation block housed Italian police-soldiers, there to help restore law and order in Iraq. The death and injury toll caused the Italian Parliament to have a short silence, and Pope John Paul II to express sorrow for the victims. (by mid Nov 14 the death toll was given as 32) [Nov 13, 03]
• Vehicle bombs outside the British consulate and a British bank in Turkey.    
   TURKEY: Several lives lost. (A commentator on television on Nov 23 said that certain activists might be planning more "good works" as the fasting month of Ramadan draws to a close. Previously it had been reported that a person planning to be a suicide bomber might e-mail his contacts saying he would "get married" soon – thus referring to the houris of Paradise.) [Week ending Nov 22 03]
• Inspiration for violence.
   The West Australian, "Inspiration for violence," letter, p 19, Monday November 24 2003.
   PERTH, W. AUSTRALIA: The suicide bombings in Turkey have many people once again shaking their heads in bewilderment and asking the same question: "What is it that drives these people to do this?" World leaders say the bombers are anti-freedom, while the media tend to blame the attitude of the West to Islam as being at the root of the trouble.
   They are all wrong. The place to look for the motivation is the Koran, the ultimate authority for all Muslims. This so-called holy book clearly commands its followers to fight jihad against the infidels (all non-Muslims) "until the whole world lies under Islam", or "until the world submits to (the Muslim god) Allah".
   While a vast number of the world's 1.5 billion Muslims would not take these commands seriously, about 10 per cent, or 15 million do. That is a mighty army which is driven by ideology preached by fanatical imams and financed by petrodollars. The Saudis say they are anti-terrorism, but in actuality, they pay billions in ransom to many Islamic terrorist organisations, in order to preserve their own positions of power and privilege.
   Closer to home, all Muslim children in this country learn the same Koran by rote. Who knows what their teachers emphasise and what interpretation they put on the war commands in the Koran? This book should be banned if we are serious about maintaining our freedom. [Nov 24, 03]
• FBI probes Saudi Embassy; Bank records seized on suspicion of terrorist financing. WASHINGTON: The FBI [Federal Bureau of Investigation] has subpoenaed records for dozens of bank accounts belonging to the Saudi Arabian Embassy in its probe into terrorism bombing.
   The unprecedented request has strained relations with a close United States ally in the war on terrorism.
   The subpoenas are part of an investigation into whether part of more than $400 million a year which the Saudi Government spends in the US ends up with Muslim extremists.   …
   It focuses on the financial activities of the Islamic and cultural affairs office of the Embassy and on the activities of Saudi consulates around the country.
   Outraged Saudi officials said the subpoenas were not needed.
   "We became aware of the subpoenas in August …"
   … handed over embassy records for the past 20 years …
   … investigation … first reported by the Los Angeles Times last week.   … – The West Australian, Washington Post, p 21, Mon Nov 24, 03
• Primitive 'avenger' ideas, petrodollars, and the arms trade.
   AUSTRALIA: The West gave us clues to the background of the evil bombings by extremists on pages 19 and 21 on Monday.
   Bank accounts for the $400 million a year that Saudi Arabia spends in the USA were subpoenaed in August ("FBI probes Saudi Embassy," 24/11) but were not in the news media until last week.
   This gives a clue to the possible way the schools that teach terror along with old texts are funded around the world. Some magazines such as the Reader's Digest have been exposing this at least since last February.
   L.D.Brown's letter ("Inspiration for violence") is another of the few items that point out dangerous teachings in the Koran.
   These verses run counter to President Bush's claim when visiting Indonesia that Muslim countries could develop societies of multiculturalism and prosperity.
   Equally incorrect was Jordanian King Abdullah's claim, after his nation's interests were targeted recently, that the Koran was a religion of peace.
   Both the President and the King ought to read, for example,
   4 - 22:19 "As for the disbelievers, for them garments of fire shall be cut …and they will be punished with hooked iron rods" or 4 - 2:191 "And kill them wherever you find them" , , or another old text 5 - Volume 9, Book 84, Number 57: "Whoever changed his Islamic religion, then kill him"
   The first quote about fiery garments and metal rods is apt for the Bali bombing attacks, complete with metal added to the bombs to cause horrendous injuries and death.
   It is illuminating to compare these teachings with the Bible "title deeds" to the land of Israel, such as "You should without fail devote them to destruction, the Hittites and the Amorites, the Canaanites and the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites, just as Jehovah your God has commanded you." Hebrew Torah, Deuteronomy 20:16-17 (New World Translation, 1984 revision)
   Have there been any Muslim leaders declaring fatwas or jihads against the monsters who bombed the Red Cross in Iraq? Are there anniversary days of mourning and repentance in the mosques for the murders committed in the USA and other lands?
   In a sense, Islam is a continuation of the religion of the Judahites and Israelites, complete with the "eye for and eye, tooth for a tooth" teaching, which allows discrimination against outsiders, AND sects INSIDE such religions to attack each other too. It is really sad to see millions of people in 2003 reverencing "holy texts" which are really a continuation of the prehistoric "avenger" philosophy. Similar aims, but they turn on each other.
   But do either the President or the King wonder why the weapons that the terrorists of all faiths use on other people are sold to them by armaments companies headed by Bible-toting Christians, some of whom donate to charities, "oppose" religious and racial discrimination, and are invited to inter-faith conferences and ceremonies?
   Do electors care that the governments of Blair, Bush and Putin sell billions of dollars worth of arms on the world market, much of which finds its way into the hands of terrorists and brutal dictators?
   Do Australians care that the Howard government is falling over itself to resume training links with Kopassus, the cruel Indonesian force that tried to ruin Christian East Timor, and whose leader is even now on a serious charge? – Letter sent to newspaper, Monday, November 24 2003
• [Regarding claim that the teaching endorses the use of force against unbelievers.]
   AUSTRALIA: While agreeing with the thrust of Richard Egan's article "Social Justice statements: in whose name should they be published?" (Nov AD 2000) I reluctantly take issue with him about (1) denying there was a genocide element against the Australian Aborigines, and (2) regarding Islam and terrorism. * * *
   The Social Justice Statement made an unsustainable claim that there is no connection at all between Islam and terrorism. Mr Egan goes to the other extreme, arguing that the roots of Islamic terrorism are found in the Quran [Koran] and the life of Mohammad. This assessment is as misleading and tendentious as the Statement he is criticising.
   It is unfortunately true that the Quran, the Sunna and the history of the Muslim umma contain elements that can be construed as endorsing the use of force against unbelievers, but it is unfair to single out Islam for this fault.
   Part of the Bible, and the story of the Catholic Church contain such strands. Violence against unbelievers is a corruption of both the Muslim and the Christian faiths, and is rejected by the overwhelming majority of both creeds. – based on AD 2000, Melbourne, letter from Dr Michael Barr, University of Queensland, p 13, Dec 2003 - Jan 2004, issued in Dec 03
• Amrozi's invocation of battle of Khaibar says much about the terrorists' mindset.
   Online Opinion, Australia, "Amrozi's invocation of Khaibar says much about the terrorists' mindset," , By Mark Durie, Posted Tuesday, December 09, 2003
   AUSTRALIA: When Amrozi bin Nurhasin, the smiling Bali bomber, entered a Bali courtroom on the day of his sentencing, he was shouting: "Jews, remember Khaibar. The army of Muhammad is coming back to defeat you."
   What was this Khaibar, and why should it be remembered? In the time of Muhammad, Khaibar was a fertile oasis in the Arabian Desert. It was populated by Jews, who maintained its irrigation systems and lived off its produce. When Muhammad conquered the oasis in 628, the Jews who lived there managed to negotiate a surrender. The conditions of their surrender were that some of them could remain to tend the date palms and gardens but in return they had to pay 50 per cent of their harvest to the Muslims. The land itself would henceforth belong to the Muslim community. The Jews of Khaibar were also granted permission to keep practising their faith. Soon after, the Arab Christians of Najran were forced to accept the same conditions.
   The right of the Jews of Khaibar to stay on their former lands was a temporary concession, withdrawn in 640 by Umar, in obedience to Muhammad's dying wish: "Two religions shall not remain together in the peninsula of the Arabs". In this same year the whole of Arabia was cleansed of non-Muslims. Khaibar is a name all Muslims jurists will recognise, since it was the conquest of Khaibar that set the precedent in Islamic case law for the subsequent treatment of non-Muslims who surrendered to Islamic conquest and rule. (Khaibar also provided Muhammad with one of his wives, Safiya, a leading Jewish woman of Khaibar whom he selected for himself from among the enslaved captives.)
   The discriminatory shari'a regulations applying to non-Muslims, who are referred to in Islamic law as dhimmis, are based upon the precedent of Khaibar. Through a twist of history the defeat of the Jews at this little-known Arabian oasis helped determine the treatment of many millions of non-Muslims after Islamic conquest, including the once-vast Christian populations of the Middle East. For this reason, the name of Khaibar has great significance for us all.
   For extremist Muslims like Amrozi, it stands for the defeat of infidel enemies, and their humiliation and subjugation under shari'a conditions, an enduring signpost to the hope of an Islamist victory. For non-Muslims this name stands for centuries of obliterated history and oppressive discrimination, referred to by Bat Ye'or, historian of the dhimmis, as dhimmitude.
   Amrozi the smiling terrorist was right - we should all remember Khaibar as a turning point in world history. Today the precedent of Khaibar continues to shape the lives of the Jews of Iran, the Copts in Egypt, Africans in the Sudan, Pakistani Christians, Hindus and Zoroastrians, and many more. Widespread discrimination against non-Muslims is endemic in Islamic nations, to a significant degree, and there are signs that the problem is getting worse in the 21st century, not better.
   Amrozi's laughing face has been constantly on the front page of Australian newspapers in recent months. The grief felt over the casualties in the Bali attacks is profound. So it was an irony that, when The Australian reported Amrozi's words on the day after his sentencing, the editors did not recognise the name of Khaibar and misspelled it as "Hibah".
   Despite its landmark significance for interfaith relations, the name of Khaibar now seems to be forgotten, its significance obscured. The fate of the Jews of Khaibar had momentous consequences for world history, yet this page of history has been torn out of the non-Muslim world's collective consciousness. It is time for it to be returned to its rightful place.
   (This was published in the latest edition of Quadrant.)
   Associate Prof. Mark Durie is a Minister in St Hilary's Anglican Church, Kew.
   Related Links:
  • St Hilary's Anglican Church, Kew

  •    Recent Articles in this Section:
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    • [Terrorism, Suicide Attacks Forbidden by Islamic Law, but spot the loopholes!] Indonesia flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
       JAKARTA, Indonesia (Dec 17, 2003): An influential group of Muslim scholars in Indonesia have declared that suicide attacks, and terrorism in general, is forbidden by Islamic law. Members of the Indonesian Ulama Council, which brings together Muslim scholars to discuss the implementation of Islamic law, say that killing - especially of innocents - is contrary to the teachings of the religion. The move comes after increasing criticism that Indonesia's powerful Islamic groups were doing too little to condemn terrorism in the country.
       The ruling says that killing innocent people is forbidden, and that seeking martyrdom with such actions as suicide bombings is only justified in war zones. It states clearly that Indonesia is not a war zone. A regional terrorist group, Jemaah Islamiyah, or JI, has used Islam to justify a series of bloody attacks in Indonesia. They include last year's bombing of a nightclub on Bali, which killed more than 200 people, and August's attack on an U.S. run hotel, which killed 12. Captured members of the group say the attacks were part of a holy war against the West, particularly the United States. They accuse the West of waging a war against Muslims.
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       Members of the council also ruled that doing business with banks that charge or pay interest is against Islam. However, that ruling is controversial and will be further debated. – VOA, "Terrorism, Suicide Attacks Forbidden by Islamic Law, Muslim Scholars Say," , by Tim Johnston, Jakarta, 12:25 UTC, Dec 17, 2003
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    • [Islamic body bans terror. But jihad acceptable for the oppressed, death to religious enemies.] Indonesia flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
       The West Australian, "Islamic body bans terror; But suicide bombings still legitimate in war zones, religious leaders rule." Australian Associated Press, p 24, Dec 18 2003
       JAKARTA, Indonesia (Dec 18): Indonesia's leading Islamic body has issued a binding religious decree banning terrorism and suicide bombings.
       The Indonesian Council of Ulemas (MUI) issued the decree, or fatwa, after its annual meeting in Jakarta on Tuesday.
       The council ruled that terrorism was unacceptable under any definition of jihad, or holy struggle, and fell outside the teachings of the Koran.
       "Terrorism is haram (forbidden), whether it is terror done by individuals, groups, or states," the fatwa said.
       But jihad was still acceptable for oppressed Muslims and death by suicide was still allowable in war zones where the intention was to create fear and loss of life for enemies of Islam.
       "It should not be done in a non-war place, where it can cause someone to be killed," the ruling said.
       Indonesia has been struck by several terrorist bombings in recent times, including the deadly Bali bombings and a suspected suicide blast outside the Marriott Hotel in Jakarta in August.
       In October, the master bomb-maker for al-Qaida-linked terror group Jemaah Islamiyah – Malaysian engineer Azahari Husin – eluded a raid by police in the Indonesian city of Bandung, raising fears of more bombings over Christmas.
       Ma'ruf Amin, chairman of the MUI's fatwa commission, said the commission also had agreed to ban commercial bank interest paid to customers. Such payments pose problems for observant [= those observing all the rules] Muslims because they are seen as usury, which is forbidden.
       Alternative Islamic or shariah banks work along the lines of venture capital companies and allocate returns to investor based on their financial performance.
       Mr Ma'ruf said the commission had decided to prohibit interest charged by financial institutions such as banks, insurance companies, pawnshops and co-operatives.
       They had agreed that today's interest charges were similar to the practice of riba which was forbidden during the era of the Prophet Muhammad.
       The MUI issued a binding fatwa prohibiting Indonesian Muslims from using conventional banks once still-rare shariah banks were operating in their area.
       "We consider the current situation an emergency, so Muslim people are still allowed to use conventional banks," he said.
       Borrowers from Islamic banks do not pay interest. But critics say the system offers less protection for depositor funds than a conventional bank. [Emphasis added]
    [COMMENT: So, if I was a banker working under conventional methods, and if I foreclosed on a Muslim debtor I would be creating an "oppressed Muslim," so holy war against me would be "acceptable."  Now we see! – Submit to Self-Appointed Leadership Unit, 18 Dec 03. COMMENT ENDS.] [Article: Dec 18, 03]
    • Muslim council issues anti-terrorist fatwa.
       INDONESIA (Dec 18): A leading Islamic council in Indonesia has issued a fatwa forbidding terrorism and suicide bombings in times of peace.
       The Australian daily newspaper reports the Muslim Preachers Council, or MUI, has frequently declared terrorism haram – illegal under Islamic law – but this is the first official edict on the matter.
       MUI Fatwa Commission chief Ma'ruf Amin said Wednesday the edict was intended to clear up any confusion defining terrorism and jihad, which can mean the holy battle to defend Islam and Islamic people.
       (The fatwa is) to prevent people committing suicide, which they consider as jihad – when it's not in the interests of religion, or the struggle of their nation or their people, he said.
       The terrorism fatwa comes hard on the heels of a security conference in Jakarta in which a number of international security experts, including Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer, called on mainstream Muslims to denounce terrorism more forcefully. – Big News Network online, "Muslim council issues anti-terrorist fatwa," , Thursday December 18, 2003
    • 2003 - Michael Novak slams Vatican cardinal over Saddam dignity call. United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  Vatican City / Papal flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
       CathNews, Flak for Vatican cardinal over Saddam dignity call, , Dec 18, 2003
       UNITED STATES (Dec 18): Respected US right-wing Catholic commentator Michael Novak has savaged Cardinal Renato Martino, prefect of the Pontifical Commission for Justice and Peace, for defending the right of the captured Saddam Hussein to dignified treatment at the hands of his American captors.
       Cardinal Martino said he felt compassion for Saddam when he saw his dignity violated by the television images that followed the capture of the former Iraqi president by US forces at the weekend. The cardinal has also made it clear that Hussein should be tried in an "appropriate" jurisdiction and should not be subject to the death penalty.
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    • 2003 - The message from Medina is too absolute for peace-lovers to digest.
       AUSTRALIA: Dr Michael Barr (Dec AD 2000) has the same attitude towards the way that the texts of the Quran (Koran) etc are used to fuel terrorism, as the European Jews had towards the rhetoric and writings of the Nazis.
       The Jewish leaders there could not contemplate the full import of the Nazi teachings that Judaism was a cancer that had to be cut out – so they buried their heads in the sand. The meaning was too awful to believe – but it was carried out to the letter. Some couldn't believe it until they were being cajoled into the gas chambers (many didn't then) or ordered to stand in front of the death pits.
       Modern society is doing the same about the teachings of Islam, which are quite simple: There is only one God, and only one Prophet, disbelievers have no right to exist, and "kill them wherever you find them." dept/MSA/ fundamentals/ hadithsunnah/ bukhari/084. sbt.html#009. 084.058
       Islamic scholars plainly teach that the penalty of apostasy is death.
       Dr Barr is in quite good company writing that the Christian faith, too, has used violence towards "unbelievers." When Christians did so, they often quoted from the sacred texts of a faith older than theirs, instead of following their supposed leader who said, "Forgive your enemies."
       Amazingly, many of the intelligentsia in the West, and politicians like President Bush, have made statements that violence is not a part of religion, when the evidence from most cultures is that the original religions were usually of the war-god variety. Molech, the Aztec god, Durga, Voodoo – need I go on?
       The genuine Jesus message, and the genuine Buddha message, were breakaways from pretty bloodthirsty creeds. Peace and good works are the mainstream message of both. Devotees of these faiths who use violence to convert others have done so in direct defiance of the main teacher of the faith.
       An argument that ought to convince university people is what happened after the Iranian dictator declared a death-sentence fatwa against Salman Rushdie. All the great Islamic colleges around the world kept a deathly silence. The fatwa was not condemned from Cairo, nor from London nor America.
       After 9/11 [Sep 11, 2001], there was no outpouring of protest from the Islamic leaders throughout the world, and they don't hold an anniversary day of mourning and regret.
       So why say that the "overwhelming majority" don't believe in violence?
       The recent condemnation of terrorism from the Islamic council of Indonesia has so many exceptions written into it, it is paper thin. An "oppressed Muslim" is entitled to use force, and in "war countries" violence is approved. Need we labour the point? – (Details supplied), reply letter, Dec 21 03
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